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ERD Symbols and Meanings

ERD Symbols and Meanings

Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) is a popular software engineering tool for database modeling and illustration the logical structure of databases, which uses one of two notations - Chen's or Crow’s Foot. Crow's foot notation is effective when used in software engineering, information engineering, structured systems analysis and design. Each of these notations applies its own set of ERD symbols. Crow's foot diagrams use boxes to represent entities and lines between these boxes to show relationships. Varied shapes at the ends of lines depict the cardinality of a given relationship. Chen's ERD notation is more detailed way to represent entities and relationships. ConceptDraw PRO application enhanced with all-inclusive Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD) solution allows design professional ER diagrams with Chen's or Crow’s Foot notation on your choice. It contains the full set of ready-to-use standardized ERD symbols and meanings helpful for quickly drawing, collection of predesigned ERD samples, examples and templates. ConceptDraw Pro is a great alternative to Visio for Mac users as it offers more features and can easily handle the most demanding professional needs. Read more
How to Build an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)
How to Build an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)

Basic Flowchart Symbols and Meaning

Flowcharts are the best for visually representation the business processes and the flow of a custom-order process through various departments within an organization. ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with Flowcharts solution offers the full set of predesigned basic flowchart symbols which are gathered at two libraries: Flowchart and Flowcharts Rapid Draw. Among them are: process, terminator, decision, data, document, display, manual loop, and many other specific symbols. The meaning for each symbol offered by ConceptDraw gives the presentation about their proposed use in professional Flowcharts for business and technical processes, software algorithms, well-developed structures of web sites, Workflow diagrams, Process flow diagram and correlation in developing on-line instructional projects or business process system. Use of ready flow chart symbols in diagrams is incredibly useful - you need simply drag desired from the libraries to your document and arrange them in required order. There are a few serious alternatives to Visio for Mac, one of them is ConceptDraw PRO. It is one of the main contender with the most similar features and capabilities. Read more
How to Build a Flowchart
How to Build a Flowchart

Process Flowchart

The main reason of using Process Flowchart or PFD is to show relations between major parts of the system. Process Flowcharts are used in process engineering and chemical industry where there is a requirement of depicting relationships between major components only and not include minor parts. Process Flowcharts for single unit or multiple units differ in their structure and implementation. ConceptDraw PRO is Professional business process mapping software for making Process flowcharts, Process flow diagram, Workflow diagram, flowcharts and technical illustrations for business documents and also comprehensive visio for mac application. Easier define and document basic work and data flows, financial, production and quality management processes to increase efficiency of your business with ConcepDraw PRO. Business process mapping software with Flowchart Maker ConceptDraw PRO includes extensive drawing tools, rich examples and templates, process flowchart symbols and shape libraries, smart connectors that allow you create the flowcharts of complex processes, process flow diagrams, procedures and information exchange. Process Flowchart Solution is project management workflow tools which is part ConceptDraw Project marketing project management software. Drawing charts, diagrams, and network layouts has long been the monopoly of Microsoft Visio, making Mac users to struggle when needing such visio alternative like visio for mac, it requires only to view features, make a minor edit to, or print a diagram or chart. Thankfully to MS Visio alternative like ConceptDraw PRO software, this is cross-platform charting and business process management tool, now visio alternative for making sort of visio diagram is not a problem anymore however many people still name it business process visio tools. Read more
How To Create a Process Flow Chart (business process modelling techniques)
How To Create a Process Flow Chart (business process modelling techniques)
The vector stencils library "Dimensioning and tolerancing" contains 45 symbols of geometric dimensions and mechanical tolerances, geometric symbols, callouts, and text boxes and inserts.
Use these geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) shapes to create annotated mechanical drawings.
"Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a system for defining and communicating engineering tolerances. It uses a symbolic language on engineering drawings and computer-generated three-dimensional solid models that explicitly describes nominal geometry and its allowable variation. It tells the manufacturing staff and machines what degree of accuracy and precision is needed on each controlled feature of the part. GD&T is used to define the nominal (theoretically perfect) geometry of parts and assemblies, to define the allowable variation in form and possible size of individual features, and to define the allowable variation between features." [Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Dimensioning and tolerancing" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Dimensioning and tolerancing symbols
Dimensioning and tolerancing symbols, total runout, text block, symmetry, surface, finish, roughness, surface profile, straightness, statistical tolerance, slope, position, positioning, perpendicularity, parallelism, material condition, line profile, flatness, diameter, depth, datum, reference, circle, datum, feature control, datum target, point, datum target, line, datum target, area, datum, cylindricity, countersink, counterbore, spotface, conical taper, concentricity, circularity, circular runout, callout, arc length, angularity,
The vector stencils library "Switches and relays" contains 58 symbols of electrical contacts, switches, relays, circuit breakers, selectors, connectors, disconnect devices, switching circuits, current regulators, and thermostats for electrical devices.
"In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.
The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or "open", meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is nonconducting. The mechanism actuating the transition between these two states (open or closed) can be either a "toggle" (flip switch for continuous "on" or "off") or "momentary" (push-for "on" or push-for "off") type.
A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. ... A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit is called a relay. Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drive mechanism. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system, providing a visible point of isolation that can be padlocked if necessary to prevent accidental operation of a machine during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock." [Switch. Wikipedia]
"A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.
A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays"." [Relay. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Switches and relays" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Switch and relay symbols
Switch and relay symbols, two way contact, time delay make, open switch, time-delay closing, TDC, time delay make, normally open, time delay break, normally closed, time delay break, closed switch, time-delay opening, TDO, thermostat, temperature switch, temperature sensitive switch, temperature actuated switch, switch disconnector, isolating-switch, stay put, contact without spring return, spring return, make, spring return, break, spring return, shorting selector, make-before-break, shorting, bridging,  contact transfer, selector switch, break-before-make, nonshorting, nonbridging, contact transfer, safety interlock, circuit opening, relay contacts, relay coil, relay, pushbutton, make, circuit closing, mushroom head, push-pull head, pushbutton, break, circuit opening, mushroom head, push-pull head, pushbutton, 2-circuit, circuit opening, break, proximity limit switch, directly actuated, spring returned, normally closed, pressure actuated switch, pilot light, passing make-contact, mercury switch, manual switch, manually operated switch, make contact, liquid level actuated switch, limit switch, directly actuated, spring returned, normally open, limit switch, directly actuated, spring returned, normally closed, limit switch, isolator, inertia switch, gas flow actuated switch, fuse, flow actuated, circuit breaker, change-over contact, break contact, SPST, single-pole, single-throw, switch, SPDT, single-pole, double-throw, switch, DPST, double-pole, single-throw, switch, DPDT, double-pole, double-throw, switch, 4 position, switch, 3 position, three-position, switch, 2 position, switch,
The vector stencils library "Transmission paths" contains 43 symbols of power transmission paths, electronic circuits, bus connectors and elbows, terminals, junctions, and concentrators.
Use it to annotate electrical diagrams, electronic schematics and circuit diagrams.
"A physical medium in data communications is the transmission path over which a signal propagates.
Many transmission media are used as communications channel.
For telecommunications purposes in the United States, Federal Standard 1037C, transmission media are classified as one of the following:
(1) Guided (or bounded) - waves are guided along a solid medium such as a transmission line.
(2) Wireless (or unguided) - transmission and reception are achieved by means of an antenna.
One of the most common physical medias used in networking is copper wire. Copper wire to carry signals to long distances using relatively low amounts of power. The unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is eight strands of copper wire, organized into four pairs.
Another example of a physical medium is optical fiber, which has emerged as the most commonly used transmission medium for long-distance communications. Optical fiber is a thin strand of glass that guides light along its length.
Multimode and single mode are two types of commonly used optical fiber. Multimode fiber uses LEDs as the light source and can carry signals over shorter distances, about 2 kilometers. Single mode can carry signals over distances of tens of miles.
Wireless media may carry surface waves or skywaves, either longitudinally or transversely, and are so classified.
In both communications, communication is in the form of electromagnetic waves. With guided transmission media, the waves are guided along a physical path; examples of guided media include phone lines, twisted pair cables, coaxial cables, and optical fibers. Unguided transmission media are methods that allow the transmission of data without the use of physical means to define the path it takes. Examples of this include microwave, radio or infrared. Unguided media provide a means for transmitting electromagnetic waves but do not guide them; examples are propagation through air, vacuum and seawater.
The term direct link is used to refer to the transmission path between two devices in which signals propagate directly from transmitters to receivers with no intermediate devices, other than amplifiers or repeaters used to increase signal strength. This term can apply to both guided and unguided media.
A transmission may be simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex.
In simplex transmission, signals are transmitted in only one direction; one station is a transmitter and the other is the receiver. In the half-duplex operation, both stations may transmit, but only one at a time. In full duplex operation, both stations may transmit simultaneously. In the latter case, the medium is carrying signals in both directions at same time." [Transmission medium. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Transmission paths" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Transmission path symbols
Transmission path symbols, transmission path, terminal, 3-phase, terminal, straight, bus, point, overground, weatherproof, enclosure, optical fiber, line, cable, underground, line, cable, submarine, line, cable, overhead, line, cable, loaded, line, cable, coaxial, line concentrator, lead group, label, path, elbow, bus, direction, flow, transmission path, cable group, cable, conductor, bus, width, anticreep device, cable, 8-line, bus, straight bus connector, 8-line, bus, elbow, 4-line, bus, straight bus connector, 4-line, bus, elbow, 3-line, bus, elbow, 3-line bus, 3-channel, straight bus connector, 2-line, bus, elbow, 2-line bus, 2-channel, straight bus connector,
The vector stencils library "Process annotations" contains 22 symbols of interface points, slope, off-sheet labels, callouts and textboxes.
Use these shapes for setting automatic labels to display a datasheet field for a pipeline shape, labels, captions, outlines, off-sheet labels, text balloons, annotations, outlines, tags, and descriptions.
"In engineering a process is a set of interrelated tasks that, together, transform inputs into outputs. These tasks may be carried out by people, nature, or machines using resources; so an engineering process must be considered in the context of the agents carrying out the tasks, and the resource attributes involved. Systems Engineering normative documents and those related to Maturity Models are typically based on processes. For example, System Engineering processes of the EIA-632 and processes involved in the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) institutionalization and improvement approach. Constraints imposed on the tasks and resources required to implement them are essential for executing the tasks mentioned.
A chemical process is a series of unit operations used to produce a material in large quantities.
In the chemical industry, chemical engineers will use the following to define or illustrate a process:
Process Flow Diagram (PFD),
Piping and instrumentation diagram
(P&ID),
Simplified process description,
Detailed process description,
Project management,
Process simulation." [Process (engineering). Wikipedia]
The example "Design elements - Process annotations" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Process annotation symbols
Process annotation symbols, slope, off-sheet, pipelines, interface point, flag, division of work, boundary point,

Integration Definition

Creation of various types of Integration DEFinition (IDEF) diagrams - IDEF0, IDEF1X, IDEF2, IDEF3 and many other is a sufficiently complex process that requires powerful automated tools. ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software offers you such tool - IDEF Business Process Diagrams solution from the Business Processes area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
The vector stencils library "Vessels" contains 40 symbols of vessels, containers, tanks, drums, and basins.
Use these shapes for drawing process flow diagrams (PFD), materials handling systems, and feed systems in industrial and manufacturing processes.
"A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous and fatal accidents have occurred in the history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure vessel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature." [Pressure vessel. Wikipedia]
The example "Design elements - Vessels" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Vessel symbols
Vessel symbols, water surface, vessel, drum, pressure vessel, tray, solid, column, tray, dashed, column, tray column, storage sphere, open tank, gas holder, gas cylinder, fluid contacting, vessel, flanged access point, covered tank, floating roof, sump, covered tank, floating roof, covered tank, fixed roof, sump, covered tank, fixed roof, column, closed tank, sump, closed tank, peaked roof, closed tank, clarifier, setting tank, carrying vessel, moveable, carrying vessel, cargo, carrying vessel, branch fitting, barrel, bag, autoclave, propeller agitator, autoclave, helical agitator, autoclave, anchor agitator, access point,

IDEF0 Flowchart Symbols

The modeling of business and business processes is not quite a simple process for both small-size businesses and large businesses. The IDEF0 method is one of the popular and easy methods of modeling the business as a complex system. It is based on the functional modeling language Structured Analysis and Design Technique (abbr. SADT) and is concentrated on the activity modeling. According to this method are constructed the IDEF0 Diagrams and IDEF0 Flowcharts, which are succesfully used not only for documenting the business, but also for analysis, development, integration of information and software systems, reengineering, etc. This method suggests the use of special IDEF0 Flowchart Symbols from the IDEF0 notation for construction the IDEF0 Flowcharts. ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector graphic software extended with IDEF0 Diagrams solution from the Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park is rich for the powerful drawing tools, built-in templates and samples, and predesigned IDEF0 flowchart symbols. Read more

Types of Flowcharts

A Flowchart is a graphical representation of process, algorithm, workflow or step-by-step solution of the problem. It shows the steps as boxes of various kinds and connects them by arrows in a defined order depicting a flow. There are twelve main Flowchart types: Basic Flowchart, Business Process Modeling Diagram (BPMN), Cross Functional Flowchart, Data Flow Diagram (DFD), IDEF (Integrated DEFinition) Flowchart, Event-driven Process Chain (EPC) Diagram, Influence Diagram (ID), Swimlane Flowchart, Process Flow Diagram (PFD), Specification and Description Language (SDL) Diagram, Value Stream Mapping, Workflow Diagram. Using the Flowcharts solution from the Diagrams area of ConceptDraw Solution Park you can easy and quickly design a Flowchart of any of these types. This solution offers a lot of special predesigned vector symbols for each of these widely used notations. They will make the drawing process of Flowcharts much easier than ever. Pay also attention for the included collection of ready Flowchart examples, samples and quick-start templates. This is business process improvement tools. If you are looking for MS Visio for your Mac, then you are out of luck, because it hasn't been released yet. However, you can use Visio alternatives that can successfully replace its functions. ConceptDraw PRO is an alternative to MS Visio for Mac that provides powerful features and intuitive user interface for the same. Read more
How to Simplify Flow Charting
How to Simplify Flow Charting

SSADM Diagram

The vector stencils library SSADM from the solution Systems engineering contains specific symbols of SSADM diagrams for ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software. The Systems engineering solution is contained in Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. The example below illustrates the waterfall model used in SSADM. This model involves 5 stages of developing a product such as requirements specification and its' analysis, design, coding and testing. Read more

Workflow Diagram Symbols

Workflow Diagram is an acknowledged method of drawing the processes and business processes, which uses the concerted set of symbols for depicting different kinds of steps or relations. Often it is named the Process Flow Diagram, but the real Process Flow Diagram uses different visual notations and different flowchart symbols. The professionally designed Workflow diagram also may be used for the same purpose as a Critical process flow diagram. Nevertheless, there are many cases when you may need to make your Workflow Diagram more bright and graphic. ConceptDraw PRO diagramming software extended with Workflow Diagrams solution from Business Processes area of ConceptDraw Solution Park possesses the powerful properties of software for Workflow diagram design. It delivers rich set of business process workflow diagram symbols, which help users to accurately diagram the workflow scenarios and to design great-looking and attractive Workflow Diagrams and Process Flow Diagrams better-suited for presentations, websites, reports, and other documents. Read more
The vector stencils library "Ports and Flows" contains 26 SysML symbols.
Use it to design your SysML diagrams using ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software.
"The main motivation for specifying ports and flows is to enable design of modular, reusable blocks with clearly defined
ways of connecting and interacting with their context of use. This clause extends UML ports to support nested ports, and
extends blocks to support flow properties, and required and provided features, including blocks that type ports. Ports can be typed by blocks that support operations, receptions, and properties as in UML. SysML defines a specialized form of Block (InterfaceBlock) that can be used to support nested ports. SysML identifies two kinds of ports, one that exposes
features of the owning block or its internal parts (proxy ports), and another that supports its own features (full ports). Default compatibility rules are defined for connecting blocks used in composite structure, including parts and ports, with association blocks available to define more specific ways of doing this. These additional capabilities in SysML enable modelers to specify a wide variety of interconnectable components, which can be implemented through many engineering and social techniques, such as software, electrical or mechanical components, and human organizations. This clause also extends UML information flows for specifying item flows across connectors and associations." [www.omg.org/spec/SysML/1.3/PDF]
The SysML shapes example "Design elements - Ports and Flows" is included in the SysML solution from the Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
SysML ports and flows symbols
SysML ports and flows symbols, standard port, required interface, provided interface, required interface, required and provided features, proxy port, provided interface, port, flow property, port, object node, nested port, item flow, interface block, interface, interface, full port, flow property, connector property, conjugated port,
"Crow's Foot notation is used in Barker's Notation, SSADM and Information Engineering. Crow's Foot diagrams represent entities as boxes, and relationships as lines between the boxes. Different shapes at the ends of these lines represent the cardinality of the relationship." [Entity–relationship model. Wikipedia]
The vector stencils library ERD, crow's foot notation contains 18 symbols for creating the ER-diagrams using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming nd vector drawing software.
The example"Design elements - ERD solution (crow's foot notation)" is included in the Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD) solution from the Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Crow's foot ERD
Crow's foot ERD, entity,
The vector stencils library "Video and audio" contains 50 symbols of audio and video devices and equipment.
Use the design elements library "Video and audio" for drawing audio and video system layouts, cabling floor plans, electrical circuit schematics and wiring diagrams of video and sound reproduction systems using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software.
Using the "Video and audio" library you can create video and audio engineering drawings and layout plans of your digital and analog, stereophonic (stereo), high fidelity (Hi-Fi, or hifi), quadraphonic, surround-sound, and home audio systems, home entertainment systems, home cinema (home theater, or home theatre), high-definition television (HDTV) and 3D television systems.
The shapes library "Video and audio" is included in the Electric and Telecom Plans solution from the Building Plans area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Video and audio symbols
Video and audio symbols, wall mounted, telephone outlet, wall mounted, speaker, wall mounted, paging speaker, wall mounted, microphone outlet, wall mounted, equipment rack, volume control, video amplifier, terminal cabinet, plywood backing, telephone, data, outlet, telephone outlet, system component, surface mounted, data, telephone, floor outlet, surface mounted, data floor outlet, stereo, speaker outlet, speaker, weatherproof, speaker, in-wall, speaker subwoofer, speaker horn, speaker ceiling, source component, plywood backboard, piezo transducer, music keypad, mono, speaker outlet, microphone, master intercom, directory unit, master antenna outlet, infrared transmitter, infrared receiver, headphone jack, generic automatic switcher, free standing, equipment rack, flush mounted, intercom unit, flush mounted, data, telephone, floor outlet, flush mounted, data floor outlet, floor mounted, microphone outlet, equipment cabinet, earphone, data outlet, ceiling mounted, speaker, ceiling mounted, paging speaker, call in switch, cable antenna outlet, buzzer, bleeper, audio, video, switcher, audio amplifier, RF amplifier,

Sales Process Flowchart Symbols

The most easier way of creating the visually engaging and informative Sales Process Flowchart is to create the new ConceptDraw document and to use the predesigned vector symbols offered in 6 libraries of the Sales Flowchart Solution. There are more than six types of sales process flow diagrams, ConceptDraw PRO software is flowchart maker which include six collections of extended flowchart symbols for effective diagramming. There are main collections of color coded flowchart symbols: Sales Department, Sales Steps, Sales Workflow, Sales Symbols and special set of Sales Arrows and Sales Flowchart. Read more

IDEF0 Diagram

The vector stencils library IDEF0 Diagram from the solution IDEF0 Diagrams contains specific IDEF0 diagram symbols such as arrow symbols and entity symbols for ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software. The IDEF0 Diagram solution is contained in the Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more

event-driven process chain diagram, EPC diagram, process chain flowchart Event-driven Process Chain Diagrams

event-driven process chain diagram, EPC diagram, process chain flowchart
Event-driven Process Chain (EPC) Diagram is a type of flowchart widely used for modeling in business engineering and reengineering, business process improvement, and analysis. EPC method was developed within the Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS) framework. Read more