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Amine treating unit schematic diagram

This process flow diagram (PFD) example shows an amine treating system for the removal of gaseous hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. It is used in oil refineries and chemical plants. This PFD sample was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: AmineTreating.png. []
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. []
"Amine gas treating, also known as gas sweetening and acid gas removal, refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various alkylamines (commonly referred to simply as amines) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases. It is a common unit process used in refineries, and is also used in petrochemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industries.
Processes within oil refineries or chemical processing plants that remove hydrogen sulfide are referred to as "sweetening" processes because the odor of the processed products is improved by the absence of hydrogen sulfide. An alternative to the use of amines involves membrane technology. Membranes are attractive since no reagents are consumed.
Many different amines are used in gas treating:
Diethanolamine (DEA),
Monoethanolamine (MEA),
Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA),
Diisopropanolamine (DIPA),
Aminoethoxyethanol (Diglycolamine) (DGA).
The most commonly used amines in industrial plants are the alkanolamines DEA, MEA, and MDEA. These amines are also used in many oil refineries to remove sour gases from liquid hydrocarbons such as liquified petroleum gas (LPG)." [Amine gas treating. Wikipedia]
The PFD example "Amine treating unit schematic diagram" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Chemical and Process Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Process Flow Diagram (PFD), kettle, reboiler, heater, cooler, diaphragm valve, dashed mid-line, indicator, discrete instrument, column, closed tank, centrifugal pump,
"The proton–proton chain reaction is one of several fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the primary alternative being the CNO cycle. The proton–proton chain dominates in stars the size of the Sun or smaller.
In general, proton–proton fusion can occur only if the temperature (i.e. kinetic energy) of the protons is high enough to overcome their mutual electrostatic or Coulomb repulsion.
In the Sun, deuterium-producing events are so rare (diprotons, the much more common result of nuclear reactions within the star, immediately decay back into two protons) that a complete conversion of the star's hydrogen would take more than 1010 (ten billion) years at the prevailing conditions of its core. The fact that the Sun is still shining is due to the slow nature of this reaction; if it went more quickly, the Sun would have exhausted its hydrogen long ago." [Proton–proton chain reaction. Wikipedia]
The nuclear reaction diagram example "Proton-proton chain reaction" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Physics solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Proton-proton chain reaction diagram
Proton-proton chain reaction diagram, positron, gamma particle, electron neutrino,

Bar Diagrams for Problem Solving. Create space science bar charts with Bar Graphs Solution

Bar charts represent data in different categories or groups. Create bar graphs for visual solving your scientific problems and data comparison using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Bar Graphs Solution from the Graphs and Charts area of ConceptDraw Solition Park. Read more

chemical drawings, chemistry equation symbols, chemical drawing software Chemistry

This solution extends ConceptDraw PRO software with samples, template and libraries of vector stencils for drawing the Chemistry Illustrations for science and education. Read more
chemical drawings, chemistry equation symbols, chemical drawing software
This PFD of jet fuel mercaptan oxidation treating was redrawn from Wikipedia file: ConvLPGMerox.png. []
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported icense. []
"Merox is an acronym for mercaptan oxidation. It is a proprietary catalytic chemical process developed by UOP used in oil refineries and natural gas processing plants to remove mercaptans from LPG, propane, butanes, light naphthas, kerosene and jet fuel by converting them to liquid hydrocarbon disulfides.
The Merox process requires an alkaline environment which, in some of the process versions, is provided by an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), a strong base, commonly referred to as caustic. In other versions of the process, the alkalinity is provided by ammonia, which is a weak base.
The catalyst in some versions of the process is a water-soluble liquid. In other versions, the catalyst is impregnated onto charcoal granules.
Processes within oil refineries or natural gas processing plants that remove mercaptans and/or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are commonly referred to as sweetening processes because they results in products which no longer have the sour, foul odors of mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide. The liquid hydrocarbon disulfides may remain in the sweetened products, they may be used as part of the refinery or natural gas processing plant fuel, or they may be processed further.
The Merox process is usually more economical than using a catalytic hydrodesulfurization process for much the same purpose." []
The process flow diagram (PFD) example "Jet fuel mercaptan oxidation treating" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Chemical and Process Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Process flow diagram (PFD)
Process flow diagram (PFD), gate valve, electrically insulated, column, centrifugal pump,

physics symbols, physics diagrams Physics

Physics solution extends ConceptDraw PRO software with templates, samples and libraries of vector stencils for drawing the physical illustrations, diagrams and charts. Read more
physics symbols, physics diagrams
This divided bar chart sample shows the petroleum products yielded from 1 barrel of crude oil in California in 2004. It was drawn using data from the chart on the California Energy Almanac website. []
"Petroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals, which are a collection of well-defined usually pure chemical compounds, petroleum products are complex mixtures. The majority of petroleum is converted to petroleum products, which includes several classes of fuels.
According to the composition of the crude oil and depending on the demands of the market, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products. The largest share of oil products is used as "energy carriers", i.e. various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. These fuels include or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, and heavier fuel oils. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Since petroleum often contains a few percent sulfur-containing molecules, elemental sulfur is also often produced as a petroleum product. Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes such as hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization." [Petroleum product. Wikipedia]
The chart example "Petroleum products yielded from one barrel of crude oil" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Divided Bar Diagrams solution from the Graphs and Charts area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Divided bar chart
Divided bar chart, divided bar diagram,
The vector stencils library "Periodic table of chemical elements" contains 119 icon symbols of chemical elements for drawing Mendeleev's periodic table, chemical diagrams, infographics and illustrations.
"A chemical element is a pure chemical substance consisting of a single type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its atomic nucleus. Elements are divided into metals, metalloids, and non-metals. Familiar examples of elements are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen (non-metals), silicon, arsenic (metalloids), aluminium, iron, copper, gold, mercury, and lead (metals).
The lightest chemical elements, including hydrogen, helium and smaller amounts of lithium, beryllium and boron, are thought to have been produced by various cosmic processes during the Big Bang and cosmic-ray spallation. Production of heavier elements, from carbon to the very heaviest elements, proceeded by stellar nucleosynthesis, and these were made available for later solar system and planetary formation by planetary nebulae and supernovae, which blast these elements into space. The high abundance of oxygen, silicon, and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars. While most elements are generally stable, a small amount of natural transformation of one element to another also occurs in the decay of radioactive elements as well as other natural nuclear processes." [Chemical element. Wikipedia]
The chemical symbols example "Design elements - Periodic table of chemical elements" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Mendeleev periodic table icons
Mendeleev periodic table icons, zirconium, Zr, zinc, Zn, yttrium, Y, ytterbium, Yb, xenon, Xe, vanadium, V, uranium, U, ununtrium, Uut, ununseptium, Uus, ununpentium, Uup, ununoctium, Uuo, tungsten, W, titanium, Ti, tin, Sn, thulium, Tm, thorium, Th, thallium, Tl, terbium, Tb, tellurium, Te, technetium, Tc, tantalum, Ta, sulfur, S, strontium, Sr, sodium, Na, silver, Ag, silicon, Si, selenium, Se, seaborgium, Sg, scandium, Sc, samarium, Sm, rutherfordium, Rf, ruthenium, Ru, rubidium, Rb, roentgenium, Rg, rhodium, Rh, rhenium, Re, radon, Rn, radium, Ra, protactinium, Pa, promethium, Pm, praseodymium, Pr, potassium, K, polonium, Po, plutonium, Pu, platinum, Pt, phosphorus, P, palladium, Pd, oxygen, O, osmium, Os, nobelium, No, nitrogen, N, niobium, Nb, nickel, Ni, neptunium, Np, neon, Ne, neodymium, Nd, molybdenum, Mo, mercury, Hg, mendelenium, Md, meitnerium, Mt, manganese, Mn, magnesium, Mg, lutetium, Lu, livermorium, Lv, lithium, Li, lead, Pb, lawrencium, Lr, lanthanum, La, krypton, Kr, iron, Fe, iridium, Ir, iodine, I, indium, In, hydrogen, H, holmium, Ho, helium, He, hassium, Hs, hafnium, Hf, gold, Au, germanium, Ge, gallium, Ga, gadolinium, Gd, francium, Fr, fluorine, F, flerovium, Fl, fermium, Fm, europium, Eu, erbium, Er, einsteinium, Es, dysprosium, Dy, dubnium, Db, darmstadtium, Ds, curium, Cm, copper, Cu, copernicium, Cn, cobalt, Co, chromium, Cr, chlorine, Cl, cerium, Ce, carbon, C, californium, Cf, calcium, Ca, caesium, Cs, cadmium, Cd, bromine, Br, boron, B, bohrium, Bh, bismuth, Bi, berylium, Be, berkelium, Bk, barium, Ba, astatine, At, arsenic, As, argon, Ar, antimony, Sb, americium, Am, aluminium, Al, actinium, Ac,
The vector stencils library "Resources and energy" contains 19 clipart images for drawing illustrations on resources and energy.
"Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by humanity, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various ecosystems.
Natural resources are derived from the environment. Some of them are essential for our survival while most are used for satisfying our wants. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways.
Natural resources are materials and components (something that can be used) that can be found within the environment. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources (at its fundamental level). A natural resource may exist as a separate entity such as fresh water, and air, as well as a living organism such as a fish, or it may exist in an alternate form which must be processed to obtain the resource such as metal ores, oil, and most forms of energy." [Natural resource. Wikipedia]
The clip art example "Resources and energy - Vector stencils library" was created in ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software using the Manufacturing and Maintenance solution from the Illustration area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Human resources
Human resources, human resources,
Batteries, batteries,
Wind turbine
Wind turbine, wind-turbine, wind turbine,
Transmission tower
Transmission tower, cable, power line,
Natural gas burner
Natural gas burner, gas,
Solar panel
Solar panel, solar energy,
Lightning, lightning,
Ionizing radiation hazard sign
Ionizing radiation hazard sign, radioactivity,
High voltage symbol
High voltage symbol, electricity,
Atom, atom, uranium,
Incandescent light bulb
Incandescent light bulb, bulb, light bulb,
Oil barrels
Oil barrels, petroleum,
Power station
Power station, electric power station,
Wood, wood, biomass,
Perpetuum mobile
Perpetuum mobile, perpetuum mobile,
Hydroelectric dam
Hydroelectric dam, dam,
Liquefied petroleum gas
Liquefied petroleum gas, propane,
Natural gas
Natural gas, natural gas, gas,
Minecart with coal
Minecart with coal, coal,