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# Design elements - Optics

The vector stencils library "Optics" contains 17 symbol icons: reflecting surface; convex and concave lens with and without optic axis, body or ray; ray; parallel beam of light; point light source; prism with and without ray path; refraction.
Use these shapes for drawing schemes of physical experiments in geometrical optics and ray tracing diagrams.
"Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of "rays". The "ray" in geometric optics is an abstraction, or "instrument", which can be used to approximately model how light will propagate. Light rays are defined to propagate in a rectilinear path as they travel in a homogeneous medium. Rays bend (and may split in two) at the interface between two dissimilar media, may curve in a medium where the refractive index changes, and may be absorbed and reflected. Geometrical optics provides rules, which may depend on the color (wavelength) of the ray, for propagating these rays through an optical system. This is a significant simplification of optics that fails to account for optical effects such as diffraction and interference. It is an excellent approximation, however, when the wavelength is very small compared with the size of structures with which the light interacts. Geometric optics can be used to describe the geometrical aspects of imaging, including optical aberrations." [Geometrical optics. Wikipedia]
The example "Design elements - Optics" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Physics solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Optical symbols
Used Solutions

## Design elements - Optics

The vector stencils library "Lighting" contains 55 symbols of lighting devices and equipment.
Use these shapes for drawing lighting design floor plans, circuit schematic and wiring diagrams, cabling layouts, and reflected ceiling plans in the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software.
The vector stencils library "Lighting" is included in the Electric and Telecom Plans solution from the Building Plans area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Luminaire ceiling mount
Enclosed ceiling luminaire
Wall light
Down lighter
Outdoor lightning
Outdoor lightning, bollard
1-light bar
2-light bar
4-light bar
6-light bar
8-light bar
Batten fluorescent, 1 lamp
Batten fluorescent, 2 lamps
Batten fluorescent, 3 lamps
Batten fluorescent, 4 lamps
Surface Fluorescent Light
Modular fluorescent fitting
Modular fluorescent fitting, inverter
Modular fluorescent fitting 2
Emergency light
Emergency light 2
Emergency sign
Emergency Light, Recessed
Light, Surface Mounted
Ceiling Light Outlet
Recessed Ceiling Light
Ceiling Fan
Ceiling Light with Pull Cord
Weatherproof Landscape Light
Wall Light Outlet
Emergency Battery Unit
Emergency Battery Unit with two Lights
Emergency Single Light, Remote Mounted
Emergency Duplex Light, Remote Mounted
Exit Sign, Pendant Mounted
Exit Sign, Wall Mounted
Light, Pole Mounted
Light Flood, Pole Mounted
Light Flood, Wall Mounted
Light, Stanchion Mounted
Twin Lights, Pendant Mounted
Inground Light, Floor Mounted
Suspended Light
Suspended Lights
Integrated Light
Lights, Track Mounted
Night Light
Louvers
Light, Directional Accent
Light, Directional Aiming Line
Light, Directional Arrow
Used Solutions

## Design elements - Optics

The vector stencils library "Optics" contains 17 symbol icons: reflecting surface; convex and concave lens with and without optic axis, body or ray; ray; parallel beam of light; point light source; prism with and without ray path; refraction.
Use these shapes for drawing physical schemes of geometrical optics experiments and ray tracing diagrams in the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Physics solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
www.conceptdraw.com/ solution-park/ science-education-physics
Reflecting Surface
Convex Lens
Concave Lens
Object
Ray
Point Light Source
Prism
Refraction
Body and Convex Lens
Body and concave lens
Convex Lens and Ray
Concave Lens and Ray
Ray path through prism
Parallel beam of light
Parallel beam of light 2
Concave lens, optic axis
Convex lens, optic axis
Used Solutions

## Design elements - Optics

The vector stencils library "HVAC controls" contains 23 symbols of HVAC controls (sensors, actuators, timers, controllers, I/ O points). Use it for drawing HVAC system diagrams, controls drawings, and automated building control and environmental control systems design. The example "HVAC controls - Vector stencils library" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the HVAC Plans solution from the Building Plans area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Temperature sensor
Humidity sensor
Enthalpy sensor
Pressure sensor
Flow sensor
Velocity sensor
Voltage sensor
General purpose sensor
Light sensor
Rotation sensor
Vibration sensor
Timer
Current sensor
Power sensor
Air quality sensor
Level
End switch
Smoke detector
Power connection
Actuator
I/O point
Label
Wire note
Used Solutions

## Design elements - Optics

The vector stencils library "Switches and relays" contains 58 symbols of electrical contacts, switches, relays, circuit breakers, selectors, connectors, disconnect devices, switching circuits, current regulators, and thermostats for electrical devices.
"In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.
The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or "open", meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is nonconducting. The mechanism actuating the transition between these two states (open or closed) can be either a "toggle" (flip switch for continuous "on" or "off") or "momentary" (push-for "on" or push-for "off") type.
A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. ... A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit is called a relay. Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drive mechanism. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system, providing a visible point of isolation that can be padlocked if necessary to prevent accidental operation of a machine during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock." [Switch. Wikipedia]
"A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.
A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays"." [Relay. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Switches and relays" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Switch and relay symbols
Used Solutions

## Design elements - Optics

The vector stencils library "Electrical and telecom" contains 83 symbols of electrical and telecommunication equipment.
Use these shapes for drawing electrical and telecom system design floor plans, cabling layout schemes, and wiring diagrams in the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software.
The vector stencils library "Electrical and telecom" is included in the Electric and Telecom Plans solution from the Building Plans area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Luminaire ceiling mount
Enclosed ceiling luminaire
Wall light
1-light bar
2-light bar
4-light bar
6-light bar
8-light bar
Down lighter
Outdoor lightning
Outdoor lightning, bollard
Batten fluorescent, 1 lamp
Batten fluorescent, 2 lamps
Batten fluorescent, 3 lamps
Batten fluorescent, 4 lamps
Surface Fluorescent Light
Modular fluorescent fitting
Modular fluorescent fitting, inverter
Modular fluorescent fitting 2
Pull-cord switch
Emergency light
Emergency light 2
Emergency sign
Switch
Switch, 1 pole
Switch, 2 pole
Switch, 2-way
Multi-switch
Switch, intermediate
Dimmer switch
Dimmer switch 2
Socket
Socket 2
Switched socket
Switched socket 2
Double socket
Double socket 2
Socket outlet
Telephone outlet
Telephone outlet 2
Stereo outlet
Television outlet
Service panel, surface
Service panel, inset
Thermostat
Ceiling fan
Hold open unit
Detector
Fire alarm
City Fire Alarm Station
Fire Alarm Station
Fire Alarm Bell
Fire Alarm Central Station
Automatic Fire Alarm Device
Main control
Ground
Doorbell
Push Button
Buzzer
Annunciator
Horn
Maid's Signal Plug
Signal Central Station
Doorbell Chime
Doorbell Transformer
Magnetic Door Hold
Intercom
Telephone Key System
Digital Satellite System
Inside Antenna
Outside Antenna
Electric Motors
Single Phase
Three of Poly Phase
Wall Mounted Electrical Junction Box for Hardware
Wall Mounted Telephone/Data Junction Box for Hardware
Emergency Release Button
Motion Sensor
Electric Door Opener
Watchman's Station
Watchman's Central Station
Battery
Used Solutions

## Design elements - Optics

The vector stencils library "Transmission paths" contains 43 symbols of power transmission paths, electronic circuits, bus connectors and elbows, terminals, junctions, and concentrators.
Use it to annotate electrical diagrams, electronic schematics and circuit diagrams.
"A physical medium in data communications is the transmission path over which a signal propagates.
Many transmission media are used as communications channel.
For telecommunications purposes in the United States, Federal Standard 1037C, transmission media are classified as one of the following:
(1) Guided (or bounded) - waves are guided along a solid medium such as a transmission line.
(2) Wireless (or unguided) - transmission and reception are achieved by means of an antenna.
One of the most common physical medias used in networking is copper wire. Copper wire to carry signals to long distances using relatively low amounts of power. The unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is eight strands of copper wire, organized into four pairs.
Another example of a physical medium is optical fiber, which has emerged as the most commonly used transmission medium for long-distance communications. Optical fiber is a thin strand of glass that guides light along its length.
Multimode and single mode are two types of commonly used optical fiber. Multimode fiber uses LEDs as the light source and can carry signals over shorter distances, about 2 kilometers. Single mode can carry signals over distances of tens of miles.
Wireless media may carry surface waves or skywaves, either longitudinally or transversely, and are so classified.
In both communications, communication is in the form of electromagnetic waves. With guided transmission media, the waves are guided along a physical path; examples of guided media include phone lines, twisted pair cables, coaxial cables, and optical fibers. Unguided transmission media are methods that allow the transmission of data without the use of physical means to define the path it takes. Examples of this include microwave, radio or infrared. Unguided media provide a means for transmitting electromagnetic waves but do not guide them; examples are propagation through air, vacuum and seawater.
The term direct link is used to refer to the transmission path between two devices in which signals propagate directly from transmitters to receivers with no intermediate devices, other than amplifiers or repeaters used to increase signal strength. This term can apply to both guided and unguided media.
A transmission may be simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex.
In simplex transmission, signals are transmitted in only one direction; one station is a transmitter and the other is the receiver. In the half-duplex operation, both stations may transmit, but only one at a time. In full duplex operation, both stations may transmit simultaneously. In the latter case, the medium is carrying signals in both directions at same time." [Transmission medium. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Transmission paths" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Transmission path symbols
Used Solutions

## Design elements - Optics

The vector stencils library "Road signs" contains 58 symbols of road signs for labeling the road and route maps, directional and transit maps, street and locator maps.
"Traffic signs or road signs are signs erected at the side of or above roads to give instructions or provide information to road users.
... many countries have adopted pictorial signs or otherwise simplified and standardized their signs to overcome language barriers, and enhance traffic safety. Such pictorial signs use symbols (often silhouettes) in place of words and are usually based on international protocols. Such signs were first developed in Europe, and have been adopted by most countries to varying degrees." [Traffic sign. Wikipedia]
The pictograms example "Road signs - Vector stencils library" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Directional Maps solution from the Maps area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
www.conceptdraw.com/ solution-park/ maps-directional
Danger place
Intersection
Intersection 2
Bend
Double bend
Two-way traffic
Mobile bridge
Light signal
Pedestrian crossing
Back-up
Give way
Crossing
Stop
Pass this side
Direction to be followed
One-way street
Cycle track
No entry
No entry both directions
No power vehicles
No U-turns
No passing without stopping
No standing and parking
No parking
Speed limit
Height limit
Width limit
Weight limit
Priority over oncoming traffic
Streetcar or regular buses
Taxi status
Beginning that speed 30-Zone
End that speed 30-Zone
Pedestrian crossing 2
Police
Hotel
Breakdown service
Restaurant
P + R
Restroom
Fuel
Telephone
Recommended speed
Nodal point of a motorwa
Parking
Motorway
End motorway
Populated zone
End populated zone
Parking with clock
Number sign (motorway)
Exit
Direction to place
Board of announcement of exit
Number sign (federal highway)
Used Solutions

## Design elements - Optics

The vector stencils library "HVAC controls" contains 23 symbols of HVAC controls (sensors, actuators, timers, controllers, I/ O points).
"HVAC (... Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) is a control system that applies regulation to a heating and/ or air conditioning system. ...
Central controllers and most terminal unit controllers are programmable, meaning the direct digital control program code may be customized for the intended use. The program features include time schedules, setpoints, controllers, logic, timers, trend logs, and alarms. The unit controllers typically have analog and digital inputs that allow measurement of the variable (temperature, humidity, or pressure) and analog and digital outputs for control of the transport medium (hot/ cold water and/ or steam). Digital inputs are typically (dry) contacts from a control device, and analog inputs are typically a voltage or current measurement from a variable (temperature, humidity, velocity, or pressure) sensing device. Digital outputs are typically relay contacts used to start and stop equipment, and analog outputs are typically voltage or current signals to control the movement of the medium (air/ water/ steam) control devices such as valves, dampers, and motors." [HVAC control system. Wikipedia]
Use the design elements library "HVAC controls" for drawing the HVAC system diagrams, controls drawings, and automated building control and environmental control system layuout floor plans using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software.
The shapes library "HVAC controls" is included in the HVAC Plans solution from the Building Plans area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
HVAC control symbols
Used Solutions