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Carbonyl compound halogenation mechanism

This chemical reaction mechanism drawing depicts steps of carbonyl compound halogenation reaction.
"Alpha-substitution reactions occur at the position next to the carbonyl group, the α-position, and involve the substitution of an α hydrogen atom by an electrophile, E, through either an enol or enolate ion intermediate. ...
Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones.
A particularly common α-substitution reaction in the laboratory is the halogenation of aldehydes and ketones at their α positions by reaction Cl2, Br2 or I2 in acidic solution. Bromine in acetic acid solvent is often used. ...
The halogenation is a typical α-substitution reaction that proceeds by acid catalyzed formation of an enol intermediate." [Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions. Wikipedia]
This example was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: Halogenierung Mechanismus Version 3-Seite001.svg. []
This image is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. []
The chemical drawing example "Carbonyl compound halogenation mechanism" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Alpha halogenation of aldehydes and ketones
Alpha halogenation of aldehydes and ketones, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, plus, minus, hydrogen, H, bond, covalent bond, double bond,

chemical drawings, chemistry equation symbols, chemical drawing software Chemistry

chemical drawings, chemistry equation symbols, chemical drawing software
This solution extends ConceptDraw PRO software with samples, template and libraries of vector stencils for drawing the Chemistry Illustrations for science and education. Read more

How to Diagram Sentences in ConceptDraw PRO

Diagramming sentences is a playful, fun way to learning English Grammer. Sentences can be very complex, and can contain many different parts of speech which implicate many different grammatical rules. Diagramming sentences will help you to make sure every parts of your sentence are grammatically correct, and provides you with more comprehensive understanding of the English Language. A Sentence Diagram displays the parts of a sentence as a diagram in order to show the relationship of words and groups of words within the sentence. Sentence Diagram shows the relationship between the proposal of its parts. This is a good way to teach grammar! Sentence Diagram helps to make the writing more coherent as well as more interesting to read. ConceptDraw PRO allows you to create clear sentence diagrams using the special templates and vector stencils library. Read more

Electrical Drawing Software and Electrical Symbols

Any electrical device could not be created without electrical diagram, wiring also cannot be laid without pre-designed and approved scheme or plan. Electrical drawing is a type of technical drawing that depicts scheme of some electrical device and includes the information about power, lighting, etc. Electrical plan designed for architectural or engineering project visually displays location of electrical devices and connections. ConceptDraw PRO is ideal electrical software for construction professional-looking Electrical Circuits, Electrical Schematics, Electrical Layouts, Electrical Wiring, Automotive Wiring, Cabling Layout Diagrams, Circuits and Logic Schematics, Logic Gate Diagrams, Digital Circuits, Parallel Circuits, Blue Prints with help of 926 standard electrical symbols offered by 26 libraries of Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area for ConceptDraw PRO. It makes drawing Electrical diagrams very easy even for beginners, and also extends your work with various export methods. Read more

Components of ER Diagram

Entity-Relationship model gives the possibility to visually describe a database using the components of ER Diagram, entity relationship stencils, relationship symbols, work flow shapes. ER-diagram lets represent the data or entities, attributes of these entities and relationships between them, using standardized Crow’s Foot notation icons or Chen’s notation icons. An entity is an object of the real world, it can exist independently and has the instances which differ in attribute values (properties). The attributes give an unambiguous (uniquely) identification for the instance and are called the primary key, this key can be composite and combine several attributes. ConceptDraw PRO is a professional software available with Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD) solution from Software Development area that lets create ERDs for various database systems, using Crow’s Foot and Chen’s notations. It is invaluable tool for software engineers and developers, it supports ODBC-compatible databases (Oracle, MySQL, MS Access, MS SQL, InterBase, Firebird and others). Read more

Data Flow Diagram

Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is the part of the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM), which is intended for information systems projection and analysis. Data Flow Diagrams allow graphically represent the data flows in information system and analyze the data processing during the structural projection. This type of diagrams lets visually show a work of information system and results of this work, it is often used in connection with human processes and can be displayed as Workflow diagram. Data Flow Diagram visualizes processes and functions, external entities, data depositories, and data flows connecting these elements and indicating direction and data character. Each of these elements used for DFD has its own graphical notation. There are two notations to draw DFDs - Yourdon & Coad and Gane & Sarson. ConceptDraw PRO extended with Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) solution from Software Developmant area is ideal for designing professional looking DFDs, which can be then easily exported in various formats. Read more

Electrical Symbols, Electrical Diagram Symbols

When drawing Electrical Schematics, Electrical Circuit Diagrams, Power Systems Diagrams, Circuit and Wiring Diagrams, Digital and Analog Logic Schemes, you will obligatory need the electrical symbols and pictograms to represent various electrical and electronic devices, such as resistors, wires, transistors, inductors, batteries, switches, lamps, readouts, amplifiers, repeaters, relays, transmission paths, semiconductors, generators, and many more. Today these symbols are internationally standardized, so the diagrams designed using them are recognizable and comprehensible by specialists from different countries. Electrical Engineering Solution included to ConceptDraw Solution Park provides 26 libraries with 926 commonly used electrical schematic and electrical engineering symbols making the reality the easy drawing of Electrical diagrams, schematics and blueprints. Now you need only a few minutes to create great-looking Electrical diagram, simply choose required electrical design elements from the libraries, drag them on the needed places at the document and connect in a suitable way. Read more
The vector stencils library "Chemical drawings" contains 81 symbols of organic compounds and functional groups for chemical drawing.
Use it to draw structural formulas of organic molecules, schemes of chemical reactions and organic chemistry diagrams.
"Structural drawings.
Organic molecules are described more commonly by drawings or structural formulas, combinations of drawings and chemical symbols. The line-angle formula is simple and unambiguous. In this system, the endpoints and intersections of each line represent one carbon, and hydrogen atoms can either be notated explicitly or assumed to be present as implied by tetravalent carbon. The depiction of organic compounds with drawings is greatly simplified by the fact that carbon in almost all organic compounds has four bonds, nitrogen three, oxygen two, and hydrogen one. ...
Organic reactions.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. While pure hydrocarbons undergo certain limited classes of reactions, many more reactions which organic compounds undergo are largely determined by functional groups. The general theory of these reactions involves careful analysis of such properties as the electron affinity of key atoms, bond strengths and steric hindrance. These issues can determine the relative stability of short-lived reactive intermediates, which usually directly determine the path of the reaction.
The basic reaction types are: addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions and redox reactions. ...
Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that explains how it happens in sequence - although the detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone.
The stepwise course of any given reaction mechanism can be represented using arrow pushing techniques in which curved arrows are used to track the movement of electrons as starting materials transition through intermediates to final products." [Organic chemistry. Wikipedia]
The chemical symbols example "Design elements - Chemical drawings" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Chemical symbols
Chemical symbols, δ-, delta minus, electronegativity, δ+, delta plus, delta positive, Δ, delta, wedged bond, bond, wavy bond, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, plus, pentose ring, pentose, minus, methyl group, methyl, CH3, hydrogen, H, hollow wedged bond, bond, hashed wedged bond, bond, hashed bond, bond, dative bond, bond, dashed bond, cyclopropane, cyclopentane, cyclopentadienyl, cyclopentadiene, cyclooctane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, cyclobutane, carbon, bond, covalent bond, triple bond, bond, covalent bond, single bond, bond, covalent bond, double bond, bond, bold bond, benzene, Kekule structure, benzene ring, benzene, OH, NO2, NH2, COOH, COH, CO, CH2, CH,

Chemistry Equation Symbols

If you are related with chemistry in you work or education activity, you need often draw various illustrations with chemistry equations. ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software offers you the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area. Chemistry solution provides the Chemical Drawings Library with large quantity of vector chemistry equation symbols to help you create professional looking chemistry diagrams quick and easy. Read more

Flowchart Components

The ConceptDraw Flowchart component includes a set of samples and templates. This geathered as flowchart maker toolbox which focused on drawing flowcharts of any industry standards. Read more