This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the ConceptDraw site you are agreeing to our Use of Site Cookies.
The vector stencils library "Chemical drawings" contains 81 symbols of organic compounds and functional groups for chemical drawing.
Use it to draw structural formulas of organic molecules, schemes of chemical reactions and organic chemistry diagrams.
"Structural drawings.
Organic molecules are described more commonly by drawings or structural formulas, combinations of drawings and chemical symbols. The line-angle formula is simple and unambiguous. In this system, the endpoints and intersections of each line represent one carbon, and hydrogen atoms can either be notated explicitly or assumed to be present as implied by tetravalent carbon. The depiction of organic compounds with drawings is greatly simplified by the fact that carbon in almost all organic compounds has four bonds, nitrogen three, oxygen two, and hydrogen one. ...
Organic reactions.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. While pure hydrocarbons undergo certain limited classes of reactions, many more reactions which organic compounds undergo are largely determined by functional groups. The general theory of these reactions involves careful analysis of such properties as the electron affinity of key atoms, bond strengths and steric hindrance. These issues can determine the relative stability of short-lived reactive intermediates, which usually directly determine the path of the reaction.
The basic reaction types are: addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions and redox reactions. ...
Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that explains how it happens in sequence - although the detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone.
The stepwise course of any given reaction mechanism can be represented using arrow pushing techniques in which curved arrows are used to track the movement of electrons as starting materials transition through intermediates to final products." [Organic chemistry. Wikipedia]
The chemical symbols example "Design elements - Chemical drawings" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Chemical symbols
Chemical symbols, δ-, delta minus, electronegativity, δ+, delta plus, delta positive, Δ, delta, wedged bond, bond, wavy bond, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, plus, pentose ring, pentose, minus, methyl group, methyl, CH3, hydrogen, H, hollow wedged bond, bond, hashed wedged bond, bond, hashed bond, bond, dative bond, bond, dashed bond, cyclopropane, cyclopentane, cyclopentadienyl, cyclopentadiene, cyclooctane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, cyclobutane, carbon, bond, covalent bond, triple bond, bond, covalent bond, single bond, bond, covalent bond, double bond, bond, bold bond, benzene, Kekule structure, benzene ring, benzene, OH, NO2, NH2, COOH, COH, CO, CH2, CH,
This chemical reaction mechanism drawing depicts steps of carbonyl compound halogenation reaction.
"Alpha-substitution reactions occur at the position next to the carbonyl group, the α-position, and involve the substitution of an α hydrogen atom by an electrophile, E, through either an enol or enolate ion intermediate. ...
Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones.
A particularly common α-substitution reaction in the laboratory is the halogenation of aldehydes and ketones at their α positions by reaction Cl2, Br2 or I2 in acidic solution. Bromine in acetic acid solvent is often used. ...
The halogenation is a typical α-substitution reaction that proceeds by acid catalyzed formation of an enol intermediate." [Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions. Wikipedia]
This example was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: Halogenierung Mechanismus Version 3-Seite001.svg. [ wiki/ File:Halogenierung_ Mechanismus_ Version_ 3-Seite001.svg]
This image is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. [ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ ]
The chemical drawing example "Carbonyl compound halogenation mechanism" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Alpha halogenation of aldehydes and ketones
Alpha halogenation of aldehydes and ketones, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, plus, minus, hydrogen, H, bond, covalent bond, double bond,

chemical drawings, chemistry equation symbols, chemical drawing software Chemistry

chemical drawings, chemistry equation symbols, chemical drawing software
This solution extends ConceptDraw PRO software with samples, template and libraries of vector stencils for drawing the Chemistry Illustrations for science and education.
This drawing illustrates examples o f phenolic compounds molecular structures, and chemical reactions of phenols.
"In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol, which is also called carbolic acid C6H5OH. Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. ...
Although similar to alcohols, phenols have unique properties and are not classified as alcohols (since the hydroxyl group is not bonded to a saturated carbon atom). They have higher acidities due to the aromatic ring's tight coupling with the oxygen and a relatively loose bond between the oxygen and hydrogen. The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids (their pKa is usually between 10 and 12).
Loss of a positive hydrogen ion (H+) from the hydroxyl group of a phenol forms a corresponding negative phenolate ion or phenoxide ion, and the corresponding salts are called phenolates or phenoxides, although the term aryloxides is preferred according to the IUPAC Gold Book. Phenols can have two or more hydroxy groups bonded to the aromatic ring(s) in the same molecule. The simplest examples are the three benzenediols, each having two hydroxy groups on a benzene ring." [Phenols. Wikipedia]
The chemical drawing example "Phenols" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Phenolic compounds and phenol reactions
Phenolic compounds and phenol reactions, δ-, delta minus, electronegativity, δ+, delta plus, delta positive, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, methyl group, methyl, CH3, hydrogen, H, benzene, Kekule structure, benzene ring, benzene, OH, NO2, COOH, COH, CH2,

How to Diagram Sentences in ConceptDraw PRO

Diagramming sentences is a playful, fun way to learning English Grammer. Sentences can be very complex, and can contain many different parts of speech which implicate many different grammatical rules. Diagramming sentences will help you to make sure every parts of your sentence are grammatically correct, and provides you with more comprehensive understanding of the English Language. A Sentence Diagram displays the parts of a sentence as a diagram in order to show the relationship of words and groups of words within the sentence. Sentence Diagram shows the relationship between the proposal of its parts. This is a good way to teach grammar! Sentence Diagram helps to make the writing more coherent as well as more interesting to read. ConceptDraw PRO allows you to create clear sentence diagrams using the special templates and vector stencils library.
The vector stencils library "Aromatics" contains 23 symbols of aromatic rings for chemical drawing of molecular structural formulas and reaction mechanism schemes in organic chemistry.
"In organic chemistry, aromaticity is a chemical property describing the way in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibits a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... Aromaticity can also be considered a manifestation of cyclic delocalization and of resonance. This is usually considered to be because electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms that are alternately single- and double-bonded to one another. These bonds may be seen as a hybrid of a single bond and a double bond, each bond in the ring identical to every other. This commonly seen model of aromatic rings, namely the idea that benzene was formed from a six-membered carbon ring with alternating single and double bonds (cyclohexatriene), was developed by Kekulé (see History section below). The model for benzene consists of two resonance forms, which corresponds to the double and single bonds superimposing to give rise to six one-and-a-half bonds. Benzene is a more stable molecule than would be expected without accounting for charge delocalization. ... Types of aromatic compounds. The overwhelming majority of aromatic compounds are compounds of carbon, but they need not be hydrocarbons. 1. Neutral homocyclics. Benzene, as well as most other annulenes (cyclodecapentaene excepted) with the formula CnHn where n is an even number, such as cyclotetradecaheptaene. 2. Heterocyclics. In heterocyclic aromatics (heteroaromats), one or more of the atoms in the aromatic ring is of an element other than carbon. This can lessen the ring's aromaticity, and thus (as in the case of furan) increase its reactivity. Other examples include pyridine, pyrazine, imidazole, pyrazole, oxazole, thiophene, and their benzannulated analogs (benzimidazole, for example). 3. Polycyclics. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are molecules containing two or more simple aromatic rings fused together by sharing two neighboring carbon atoms (see also simple aromatic rings). Examples are naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene. 4. Substituted aromatics. Many chemical compounds are aromatic rings with other functional groups attached. Examples include trinitrotoluene (TNT), acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), paracetamol, and the nucleotides of DNA. 5. Atypical aromatic compounds. Aromaticity is found in ions as well: the cyclopropenyl cation (2e system), the cyclopentadienyl anion (6e system), the tropylium ion (6e), and the cyclooctatetraene dianion (10e). Aromatic properties have been attributed to non-benzenoid compounds such as tropone. Aromatic properties are tested to the limit in a class of compounds called cyclophanes. A special case of aromaticity is found in homoaromaticity where conjugation is interrupted by a single sp³ hybridized carbon atom. When carbon in benzene is replaced by other elements in borabenzene, silabenzene, germanabenzene, stannabenzene, phosphorine or pyrylium salts the aromaticity is still retained. Aromaticity also occurs in compounds that are not carbon-based at all. Inorganic 6-membered-ring compounds analogous to benzene have been synthesized. Hexasilabenzene (Si6H6) and borazine (B3N3H6) are structurally analogous to benzene, with the carbon atoms replaced by another element or elements. In borazine, the boron and nitrogen atoms alternate around the ring." [Aromaticity. Wikipedia]
The organic compound structural formulas example "Aromatics - Vector stencils library" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Biphenyl, diphenyl,
Pyrene, pyrene,
Triphenylene, triphenylene,
Phenanthrene, phenanthrene,
Anthracene, anthracene,
Acenaphthylene, acenaphthylene,
Naphthalene, naphthalene,
Indene, indene,
Indene, indene,
Indene, indene,
Indene, indene,
Cyclopentadiene, cyclopentadiene,
1,3-Cyclohexadiene, cyclohexadiene,
Cyclohexadiene, cyclohexadiene,
1,4-Cyclohexadiene, cyclohexadiene,
Cyclohexene, cyclohexene-1,
Cyclohexadiene 2
Cyclohexadiene 2, cyclohexadiene,
Cyclopentadiene 2
Cyclopentadiene 2, cyclopentadiene,
Cyclopentene, cyclopentene, cyclopentene-1,
Cyclopentadiene 3
Cyclopentadiene 3, cyclopentadiene,
Cyclobutadiene, cyclobutadiene,
Cyclopropene, cyclopropene-1, cyclopropene,
Phenalene, phenalene,
This sentence diagram sample was createb on the base of the webpage "Diagramming Sentences" from the website of the Capital Community College, Hartford CT. [ grammar/ diagrams2/ one_ pager2.htm]
"In grammar, clause structure refers to the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure. Such division is an element of traditional grammar.
A simple sentence consists of only one clause. A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. A complex sentence has at least one independent clause plus at least one dependent clause.
A sentence consisting of one or more dependent clauses plus two or more independent clauses may be called a complex-compound sentence or compound-complex sentence. ...
A compound sentence is composed of at least two independent clauses. It does not require a dependent clause. The clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction (with or without a comma), a semicolon that functions as a conjunction, a colon instead of a semicolon between two sentences when the second sentence explains or illustrates the first sentence and no coordinating conjunction is being used to connect the sentences, or a conjunctive adverb preceded by a semicolon. A conjunction can be used to make a compound sentence. Conjunctions are words such as for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (the first letters of which spell "fanboys"). The use of a comma to separate two independent clauses without the addition of an appropriate conjunction is called a comma splice and is generally considered an error (when used in the English language)." [Sentence clause structure. Wikipedia]
The example "Compound sentence" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Language Learning solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Sentence diagram
Sentence diagram, subject-verb relationship , modifier, indirect object ,