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Design elements - Conformations

The vector stencils library "Conformations" contains 32 symbols of ring conformations, Newman and Fisher projections for chemical and biochemical drawing the molecular models and structural formulas of organic molecules and biochemical metabolites. It is useful in stereochemistry for drawing spatial structures of conformers of organic molecules, and schemes of stereospecific chemical reactions in organic synthesis.
"In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted exclusively by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation). Such isomers are generally referred to as conformational isomers or conformers and, specifically, as rotamers. Rotations about single bonds are restricted by a rotational energy barrier which must be overcome to interconvert one conformer to another. Conformational isomerism arises when the rotation about a single bond is relatively unhindered. That is, the energy barrier must be small enough for the interconversion to occur.
Conformational isomers are thus distinct from the other classes of stereoisomers (i. e. configurational isomers) where interconversion necessarily involves breaking and reforming of chemical bonds. For example, L- & D and R- & S- configurations of organic molecules have different handedness and optical activities, and can only be interconverted by breaking one or more bonds connected to the chiral atom and reforming a similar bond in a different direction or spatial orientation.
The study of the energetics between different rotamers is referred to as conformational analysis. It is useful for understanding the stability of different isomers, for example, by taking into account the spatial orientation and through-space interactions of substituents. In addition, conformational analysis can be used to predict and explain product(s) selectivity, mechanisms, and rates of reactions." [Conformational isomerism. Wikipedia]
The chemical symbols example "Design elements - Conformations" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Molecular conformations and projections
Molecular conformations and projections, pyranose cycle, pyranose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide, furanose cycle, furanose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide, cyclopropane, cyclopentane, envelope conformation, cyclooctane, equatorial form, cyclooctane, chair conformation, cyclooctane, boat conformation, cyclohexane, twist-chair conformation, cyclohexane, twist-boat conformation, cyclohexane, planar form, cyclohexane, equatorial form, cyclohexane, chair conformation, cyclohexane, boat conformation, cycloheptane, equatorial form, cycloheptane, chair conformation, cycloheptane, boat conformation, cyclobutane, saddle conformation, cyclobutane, conformation, Newman projection formula, Fischer projection formula, monosaccharide,

Chemistry Drawings

ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area is a powerful chemistry drawing software that is ideal for quick and easy designing of various: chemistry drawings, scientific and educational chemistry illustrations, schemes and diagrams of chemical and biological lab set-ups, images with chemical formulas, molecular structures, chemical reaction schemes, schemes of labware, that can be then successfully used in the field of science and education, on various conferences, and so on. Read more
HelpDesk

How to Draw Chemistry Structures

Making chemistry drawings for science and education purposes involves many different elements that can be managed using ConceptDraw PRO. ConceptDraw Chemistry solution can be used as a tool for creating chemical schemes and diagrams of chemical lab set-ups and labware, formulas, reaction schemes, and molecular structures. With ConceptDraw PRO you can easily create and communicate chemistry drawings of any complexity. Read more
"Tryptophan (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sold for medical use as Tryptan) is one of the 22 standard amino acids and an essential amino acid in the human diet, as demonstrated by its growth effects on rats. It is encoded in the standard genetic code as the codon UGG. Only the L-stereoisomer of tryptophan is used in structural or enzyme proteins, but the R -stereoisomer is occasionally found in naturally produced peptides (for example, the marine venom peptide contryphan). The distinguishing structural characteristic of tryptophan is that it contains an indole functional group." [Tryptophan. Wikipedia]
The chemical drawing example "Tryptophan molecule ball-and-stick model" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Tryptophan amino acid
Tryptophan amino acid, oxygen, O, nitrogen, N, hydrogen, carbon, C,
The vector stencils library "Conformations" contains 32 symbols of ring conformations, Newman and Fisher projections for chemical and biochemical drawing the molecular models and structural formulas of organic molecules and biochemical metabolites, the conformers spatial structures of organic molecules, the schemes of stereospecific chemical reactions in organic synthesis.
Use these shapes to draw your stereochemistry drawings in the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
www.conceptdraw.com/solution-park/science-education-chemistry Read more
Cyclohexane: boat conformation
Cyclohexane: boat conformation, cyclohexane, boat conformation,
Cyclohexane: chair conformation
Cyclohexane: chair conformation, cyclohexane, chair conformation,
Cyclopentane: envelope conformation
Cyclopentane: envelope conformation, cyclopentane, envelope conformation,
Cyclopentane: envelope conformation
Cyclopentane: envelope conformation, cyclopentane, envelope conformation,
Cyclobutane: saddle conformation
Cyclobutane: saddle conformation, cyclobutane, saddle conformation,
Cyclobutane: saddle conformation
Cyclobutane: saddle conformation, cyclobutane, saddle conformation,
Fischer projection formula
Fischer projection formula, Fischer projection formula, monosaccharide,
Fischer projection formula
Fischer projection formula, Fischer projection formula, monosaccharide,
Fischer projection formula
Fischer projection formula, Fischer projection formula, monosaccharide,
Pyranose cycle
Pyranose cycle, pyranose cycle, pyranose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide,
Pyranose cycle
Pyranose cycle, pyranose cycle, pyranose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide,
Furanose cycle
Furanose cycle, furanose cycle, furanose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide,
Furanose cycle
Furanose cycle, furanose cycle, furanose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide,
Furanose cycle
Furanose cycle, furanose cycle, furanose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide,
Furanose cycle
Furanose cycle, furanose cycle, furanose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide,
Cyclobutane
Cyclobutane, cyclobutane,
Cyclopropane
Cyclopropane, cyclopropane,
Cyclopropane
Cyclopropane, cyclopropane,
Conformation
Conformation, conformation,
Conformation
Conformation, conformation,
Newman projection formula
Newman projection formula, Newman projection formula,
Newman projection formula
Newman projection formula, Newman projection formula,
Cyclohexane: twist-boat
Cyclohexane: twist-boat, cyclohexane, twist-boat conformation,
Cyclohexane: twist-chair
Cyclohexane: twist-chair, cyclohexane, twist-chair conformation,
Cyclohexane: planar form
Cyclohexane: planar form, cyclohexane, planar form,
Cyclohexane: equatorial form
Cyclohexane: equatorial form, cyclohexane, equatorial form,
Cycloheptane: chair conformation
Cycloheptane: chair conformation, cycloheptane, chair conformation,
Cycloheptane: boat conformation
Cycloheptane: boat conformation, cycloheptane, boat conformation,
Cycloheptane: equatorial form
Cycloheptane: equatorial form, cycloheptane, equatorial form,
Cyclooctane: chair conformation
Cyclooctane: chair conformation, cyclooctane, chair conformation,
Cyclooctane: boat conformation
Cyclooctane: boat conformation, cyclooctane, boat conformation,
Cyclooctane: equatorial form
Cyclooctane: equatorial form, cyclooctane, equatorial form,
The vector stencils library "Chemical drawings" contains 81 symbols of organic compounds and functional groups for chemical drawing.
Use it to draw structural formulas of organic molecules, schemes of chemical reactions and organic chemistry diagrams.
"Structural drawings.
Organic molecules are described more commonly by drawings or structural formulas, combinations of drawings and chemical symbols. The line-angle formula is simple and unambiguous. In this system, the endpoints and intersections of each line represent one carbon, and hydrogen atoms can either be notated explicitly or assumed to be present as implied by tetravalent carbon. The depiction of organic compounds with drawings is greatly simplified by the fact that carbon in almost all organic compounds has four bonds, nitrogen three, oxygen two, and hydrogen one. ...
Organic reactions.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. While pure hydrocarbons undergo certain limited classes of reactions, many more reactions which organic compounds undergo are largely determined by functional groups. The general theory of these reactions involves careful analysis of such properties as the electron affinity of key atoms, bond strengths and steric hindrance. These issues can determine the relative stability of short-lived reactive intermediates, which usually directly determine the path of the reaction.
The basic reaction types are: addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions and redox reactions. ...
Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that explains how it happens in sequence - although the detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone.
The stepwise course of any given reaction mechanism can be represented using arrow pushing techniques in which curved arrows are used to track the movement of electrons as starting materials transition through intermediates to final products." [Organic chemistry. Wikipedia]
The chemical symbols example "Design elements - Chemical drawings" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Chemical symbols
Chemical symbols, δ-, delta minus, electronegativity, δ+, delta plus, delta positive, Δ, delta, wedged bond, bond, wavy bond, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, plus, pentose ring, pentose, minus, methyl group, methyl, CH3, hydrogen, H, hollow wedged bond, bond, hashed wedged bond, bond, hashed bond, bond, dative bond, bond, dashed bond, cyclopropane, cyclopentane, cyclopentadienyl, cyclopentadiene, cyclooctane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, cyclobutane, carbon, bond, covalent bond, triple bond, bond, covalent bond, single bond, bond, covalent bond, double bond, bond, bold bond, benzene, Kekule structure, benzene ring, benzene, OH, NO2, NH2, COOH, COH, CO, CH2, CH,
The vector stencils library "Aromatics" contains 23 symbols of aromatic rings for chemical drawing of molecular structural formulas and reaction mechanism schemes in organic chemistry.
"In organic chemistry, aromaticity is a chemical property describing the way in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibits a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... Aromaticity can also be considered a manifestation of cyclic delocalization and of resonance. This is usually considered to be because electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms that are alternately single- and double-bonded to one another. These bonds may be seen as a hybrid of a single bond and a double bond, each bond in the ring identical to every other. This commonly seen model of aromatic rings, namely the idea that benzene was formed from a six-membered carbon ring with alternating single and double bonds (cyclohexatriene), was developed by Kekulé (see History section below). The model for benzene consists of two resonance forms, which corresponds to the double and single bonds superimposing to give rise to six one-and-a-half bonds. Benzene is a more stable molecule than would be expected without accounting for charge delocalization. ... Types of aromatic compounds. The overwhelming majority of aromatic compounds are compounds of carbon, but they need not be hydrocarbons. 1. Neutral homocyclics. Benzene, as well as most other annulenes (cyclodecapentaene excepted) with the formula CnHn where n is an even number, such as cyclotetradecaheptaene. 2. Heterocyclics. In heterocyclic aromatics (heteroaromats), one or more of the atoms in the aromatic ring is of an element other than carbon. This can lessen the ring's aromaticity, and thus (as in the case of furan) increase its reactivity. Other examples include pyridine, pyrazine, imidazole, pyrazole, oxazole, thiophene, and their benzannulated analogs (benzimidazole, for example). 3. Polycyclics. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are molecules containing two or more simple aromatic rings fused together by sharing two neighboring carbon atoms (see also simple aromatic rings). Examples are naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene. 4. Substituted aromatics. Many chemical compounds are aromatic rings with other functional groups attached. Examples include trinitrotoluene (TNT), acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), paracetamol, and the nucleotides of DNA. 5. Atypical aromatic compounds. Aromaticity is found in ions as well: the cyclopropenyl cation (2e system), the cyclopentadienyl anion (6e system), the tropylium ion (6e), and the cyclooctatetraene dianion (10e). Aromatic properties have been attributed to non-benzenoid compounds such as tropone. Aromatic properties are tested to the limit in a class of compounds called cyclophanes. A special case of aromaticity is found in homoaromaticity where conjugation is interrupted by a single sp³ hybridized carbon atom. When carbon in benzene is replaced by other elements in borabenzene, silabenzene, germanabenzene, stannabenzene, phosphorine or pyrylium salts the aromaticity is still retained. Aromaticity also occurs in compounds that are not carbon-based at all. Inorganic 6-membered-ring compounds analogous to benzene have been synthesized. Hexasilabenzene (Si6H6) and borazine (B3N3H6) are structurally analogous to benzene, with the carbon atoms replaced by another element or elements. In borazine, the boron and nitrogen atoms alternate around the ring." [Aromaticity. Wikipedia]
The organic compound structural formulas example "Aromatics - Vector stencils library" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Biphenyl
Biphenyl, diphenyl,
Pyrene
Pyrene, pyrene,
Triphenylene
Triphenylene, triphenylene,
Phenanthrene
Phenanthrene, phenanthrene,
Anthracene
Anthracene, anthracene,
Acenaphthylene
Acenaphthylene, acenaphthylene,
Naphthalene
Naphthalene, naphthalene,
Indene
Indene, indene,
Indene
Indene, indene,
Indene
Indene, indene,
Indene
Indene, indene,
Cyclopentadiene
Cyclopentadiene, cyclopentadiene,
1,3-Cyclohexadiene
1,3-Cyclohexadiene, cyclohexadiene,
Cyclohexadiene
Cyclohexadiene, cyclohexadiene,
1,4-Cyclohexadiene
1,4-Cyclohexadiene, cyclohexadiene,
Cyclohexene
Cyclohexene, cyclohexene-1,
Cyclohexadiene 2
Cyclohexadiene 2, cyclohexadiene,
Cyclopentadiene 2
Cyclopentadiene 2, cyclopentadiene,
Cyclopentene
Cyclopentene, cyclopentene, cyclopentene-1,
Cyclopentadiene 3
Cyclopentadiene 3, cyclopentadiene,
Cyclobutadiene
Cyclobutadiene, cyclobutadiene,
Cyclopropene
Cyclopropene, cyclopropene-1, cyclopropene,
Phenalene
Phenalene, phenalene,
The vector stencils library "Chemical elements" contains 118 icon symbols of chemical elements for drawing atoms, structural formulas and ball-and-stick models of inorganic and organic molecules and ions, and schemes of chemical reaction mechanisms.
"In chemistry, the ball-and-stick model is a molecular model of a chemical substance which is to display both the three-dimensional position of the atoms and the bonds between them. The atoms are typically represented by spheres, connected by rods which represent the bonds. Double and triple bonds are usually represented by two or three curved rods, respectively. In a good model, the angles between the rods should be the same as the angles between the bonds, and the distances between the centers of the spheres should be proportional to the distances between the corresponding atomic nuclei. The chemical element of each atom is often indicated by the sphere's color." [Ball-and-stick model. Wikipedia]
The chemical symbols example "Design elements - Chemical elements" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Chemical element icons
Chemical element icons, zirconium, Zr, zinc, Zn, yttrium, Y, ytterbium, Yb, xenon, Xe, vanadium, V, uranium, U, ununtrium, Uut, ununseptium, Uus, ununquadium, Uuq, ununpentium, Uup, ununoctium, Uuo, ununhexium, Uuh, ununbium, Uub, tungsten, W, titanium, Ti, tin, Sn, thulium, Tm, thorium, Th, thallium, Tl, terbium, Tb, tellurium, Te, technetium, Tc, tantalum, Ta, sulfur, S, strontium, Sr, sodium, Na, silver, Ag, silicon, Si, selenium, Se, seaborgium, Sg, scandium, Sc, samarium, Sm, rutherfordium, Rf, ruthenium, Ru, rubidium, Rb, roentgenium, Rg, rhodium, Rh, rhenium, Re, radon, Rn, radium, Ra, protactinium, Pa, promethium, Pm, praseodymium, Pr, potassium, K, polonium, Po, plutonium, Pu, platinum, Pt, phosphorus, P, palladium, Pd, oxygen, O, osmium, Os, nobelium, No, nitrogen, N, niobium, Nb, nickel, Ni, neptunium, Np, neon, Ne, neodymium, Nd, molybdenum, Mo, mercury, Hg, mendelenium, Md, meitnerium, Mt, manganese, Mn, magnesium, Mg, lutetium, Lu, lithium, Li, lead, Pb, lawrencium, Lr, lanthanum, La, krypton, Kr, iron, Fe, iridium, Ir, iodine, I, indium, In, hydrogen, holmium, Ho, helium, He, hassium, Hs, hafnium, Hf, gold, Au, germanium, Ge, gallium, Ga, gadolinium, Gd, francium, Fr, fluorine, F, fermium, Fm, europium, Eu, erbium, Er, einsteinium, Es, dysprosium, Dy, dubnium, Db, darmstadtium, Ds, curium, Cm, copper, Cu, cobalt, Co, chromium, Cr, chlorine, Cl, cerium, Ce, carbon, C, californium, Cf, calcium, Ca, caesium, Cs, cadmium, Cd, bromine, Br, boron, B, bohrium, Bh, bismuth, Bi, berylium, Be, berkelium, Bk, barium, Ba, astatine, At, arsenic, As, argon, Ar, antimony, Sb, americium, Am, aluminium,Al, actinium, Ac,

Chemistry Equation Symbols

If you are related with chemistry in you work or education activity, you need often draw various illustrations with chemistry equations. ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software offers you the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area. Chemistry solution provides the Chemical Drawings Library with large quantity of vector chemistry equation symbols to help you create professional looking chemistry diagrams quick and easy. Read more
This drawing illustrates examples o f phenolic compounds molecular structures, and chemical reactions of phenols.
"In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol, which is also called carbolic acid C6H5OH. Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. ...
Although similar to alcohols, phenols have unique properties and are not classified as alcohols (since the hydroxyl group is not bonded to a saturated carbon atom). They have higher acidities due to the aromatic ring's tight coupling with the oxygen and a relatively loose bond between the oxygen and hydrogen. The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids (their pKa is usually between 10 and 12).
Loss of a positive hydrogen ion (H+) from the hydroxyl group of a phenol forms a corresponding negative phenolate ion or phenoxide ion, and the corresponding salts are called phenolates or phenoxides, although the term aryloxides is preferred according to the IUPAC Gold Book. Phenols can have two or more hydroxy groups bonded to the aromatic ring(s) in the same molecule. The simplest examples are the three benzenediols, each having two hydroxy groups on a benzene ring." [Phenols. Wikipedia]
The chemical drawing example "Phenols" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Phenolic compounds and phenol reactions
Phenolic compounds and phenol reactions, δ-, delta minus, electronegativity, δ+, delta plus, delta positive, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, methyl group, methyl, CH3, hydrogen, H, benzene, Kekule structure, benzene ring, benzene, OH, NO2, COOH, COH, CH2,

Biology Illustration

Biology solution offers 3 libraries of ready-to-use predesigned biology symbols and vector clipart to make your biology drawing and biology illustration making fast and easy: Carbohydrate Metabolism Library, Biochemistry of Metabolism Library, Citric Acid Cycle (TCA Cycle) Library. Read more

Biology Symbols

ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with Biology solution from the Science and Education area offers a set of useful tools for fast and easy drawing of various biology illustrations and drawings.

Biology solution provides 3 libraries with large quantity of vector biology symbols: Biochemistry of Metabolism Library, Carbohydrate Metabolism Library, Citric Acid Cycle (TCA Cycle) Library. Read more

The vector stencils library " Biochemistry of metabolism" contains 46 metabolite symbols for drawing metabolic pathways maps, biochemical diagrams and metabolism process flow charts using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software.
"Metabolites are the intermediates and products of metabolism. The term metabolite is usually restricted to small molecules. Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones). A primary metabolite is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction. Alcohol is an example of a primary metabolite produced in large-scale by industrial microbiology. A secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an important ecological function. Examples include antibiotics and pigments such as resins and terpenes etc. ...
The metabolome forms a large network of metabolic reactions, where outputs from one enzymatic chemical reaction are inputs to other chemical reactions." [Metabolite. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Biochemistry of metabolism" is included in the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Metabolic pathway symbols
Metabolic pathway symbols, water, urea cycle, urea, pyruvic acid, proteins, pool, nitrogen, polysaccharides, oxygen, oxidative phosphorylation, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NADH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD, monosaccharides, lipids, lactic acid, glycogen, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose, fatty acids, glycerol, fatty acids, fats, electron transport chain, ETC, citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, TCA cycle, Krebs cycle, carbon dioxide, carbohydrates, beta-oxydation, ammonia, amino acids, adenosine triphosphate, ATP, adenosine diphosphate, ADP, acetyl coenzyme A,
This divided bar chart sample shows the petroleum products yielded from 1 barrel of crude oil in California in 2004. It was drawn using data from the chart on the California Energy Almanac website. [energyalmanac.ca.gov/gasoline/whats_in_barrel_oil.html]
"Petroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals, which are a collection of well-defined usually pure chemical compounds, petroleum products are complex mixtures. The majority of petroleum is converted to petroleum products, which includes several classes of fuels.
According to the composition of the crude oil and depending on the demands of the market, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products. The largest share of oil products is used as "energy carriers", i.e. various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. These fuels include or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, and heavier fuel oils. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Since petroleum often contains a few percent sulfur-containing molecules, elemental sulfur is also often produced as a petroleum product. Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes such as hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization." [Petroleum product. Wikipedia]
The chart example "Petroleum products yielded from one barrel of crude oil" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Divided Bar Diagrams solution from the Graphs and Charts area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Divided bar chart
Divided bar chart, divided bar diagram,
"Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units. Carbohydrates literally undergo combustion to retrieve the large amounts of energy in their bonds. Energy is secured by mitochondria in the form of ATP.
There are several different types of carbohydrates: polysaccharides (e.g., starch, amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose), monosaccharides (e.g., glucose, galactose, fructose, ribose) and the disaccharides (e.g., maltose, lactose).
Glucose reacts with oxygen in the following redox reaction, C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O, the carbon dioxide and water is a waste product and the chemical reaction is exothermic.
The breakdown of glucose into energy in the form of molecules of ATP is therefore one of the most important biochemical pathways found in living organisms." [Carbohydrate catabolism. Wikipedia]
This glucose catabolism pathways map shows glycolysis by orange color, Entner-Doudoroff phosphorylating pathway by green color, Entner-Doudoroff non-phosphorylating pathway by Yellow color.
This methabolic pathway map was redesigned from Wikimedia file: Glucose catabolism pathways.svg. [commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Glucose_catabolism_pathways.svg]
The biochemical diagram example "Glucose catabolism pathways map" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Catabolic pathway map
Catabolic pathway map, pyruvic acid, pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate, lactic acid, lactate, milk acid, glycolysis, glycerate, glyceric acid, glyceraldehyde, glyceric aldehyde
, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, triose phosphate, 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde, G3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP, PGAL, glucose, D-glucose, dextrose, grape sugar, glucose 6-phosphate, Robison ester, gluconolactone, ghlucono delta-lactone, GDL, gluconic acid, gluconate, fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, Harden-Young ester, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, DHAP, glycerone phosphate, acetyl coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA, acetic acid, acetate, ethanoic acid, Entner-Doudoroff pathway phosphorylating, Entner-Doudoroff pathway non-phosphorylating
, 6-phosphogluconolactone, 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone, 6-phosphogluconic acid, 6-phosphogluconate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, 3PG, glycerate 3-phosphate, GP, 2-phosphoglyceric acid, 2PG, 2-phosphoglycerate, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate, KDG, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate,  2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconic acid, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, 3-deoxy-2-oxo-D-gluconate, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate, 3-deoxy-D-erythro-hex-2-ulosonic acid, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate, KDPG, 13-bisphosphoglyceric acid, 13-bisphosphoglycerate, 13BPG,