"Product life cycle is a business analysis that attempts to identify a set of common stages in the life of commercial products. In other words the 'Product Life cycle' PLC is used to map the lifespan of the product such as the stages through which a product goes during its lifespan. ...

The stages of a product's life cycle... :

1. INTRODUCTION... 2. GROWTH... 3. MATURITY... 4. DECLINE...

The product life cycle is an important concept in marketing. It includes four stages that a product goes through from when it was first thought of until it is eliminated from the industry. Not all products reach this final stage. Some continue to grow and others rise and fall." [Product lifecycle. Wikipedia]

The flow chart example "Product life cycle process" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Flowcharts solution from the area "What is a Diagram" of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

The stages of a product's life cycle... :

1. INTRODUCTION... 2. GROWTH... 3. MATURITY... 4. DECLINE...

The product life cycle is an important concept in marketing. It includes four stages that a product goes through from when it was first thought of until it is eliminated from the industry. Not all products reach this final stage. Some continue to grow and others rise and fall." [Product lifecycle. Wikipedia]

The flow chart example "Product life cycle process" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Flowcharts solution from the area "What is a Diagram" of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

"In mathematics, the Euclidean algorithm, or Euclid's algorithm, is a method for computing the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two (usually positive) integers, also known as the greatest common factor (GCF) or highest common factor (HCF). ...

The GCD of two positive integers is the largest integer that divides both of them without leaving a remainder (the GCD of two integers in general is defined in a more subtle way).

In its simplest form, Euclid's algorithm starts with a pair of positive integers, and forms a new pair that consists of the smaller number and the difference between the larger and smaller numbers. The process repeats until the numbers in the pair are equal. That number then is the greatest common divisor of the original pair of integers.

The main principle is that the GCD does not change if the smaller number is subtracted from the larger number. ... Since the larger of the two numbers is reduced, repeating this process gives successively smaller numbers, so this repetition will necessarily stop sooner or later - when the numbers are equal (if the process is attempted once more, one of the numbers will become 0)." [Euclidean algorithm. Wikipedia]

The flowchart example "Euclidean algorithm" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mathematics solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

The GCD of two positive integers is the largest integer that divides both of them without leaving a remainder (the GCD of two integers in general is defined in a more subtle way).

In its simplest form, Euclid's algorithm starts with a pair of positive integers, and forms a new pair that consists of the smaller number and the difference between the larger and smaller numbers. The process repeats until the numbers in the pair are equal. That number then is the greatest common divisor of the original pair of integers.

The main principle is that the GCD does not change if the smaller number is subtracted from the larger number. ... Since the larger of the two numbers is reduced, repeating this process gives successively smaller numbers, so this repetition will necessarily stop sooner or later - when the numbers are equal (if the process is attempted once more, one of the numbers will become 0)." [Euclidean algorithm. Wikipedia]

The flowchart example "Euclidean algorithm" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mathematics solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

A five level pyramid model of different types of Information Systems based on the information processing requirement of different levels in the organization. The first level represents transaction processing systems to process basic data. The second level represents office support systems to process information in office. The third level represents management information systems to process information by managers. The fourth level represents decision support systems to process explicit knowledge. The fifth level represents executive information systems to process tacit knowledge.

"A Computer(-Based) Information System is essentially an IS using computer technology to carry out some or all of its planned tasks. The basic components of computer based information system are:

(1) Hardware - these are the devices like the monitor, processor, printer and keyboard, all of which work together to accept, process, show data and information.

(2) Software - are the programs that allow the hardware to process the data.

(3) Databases - are the gathering of associated files or tables containing related data.

(4) Networks - are a connecting system that allows diverse computers to distribute resources.

(5) Procedures - are the commands for combining the components above to process information and produce the preferred output.

The first four components (hardware, software, database and network) make up what is known as the information technology platform. Information technology workers could then use these components to create information systems that watch over safety measures, risk and the management of data. These actions are known as information technology services." [Information systems. Wikipedia]

This pyramid diagram was redesigned using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software from Wikimedia Commons file Five-Level-Pyramid-model.png. [commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Five-Level-Pyramid-model.png]

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. [creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by/ 3.0/ deed.en]

The triangle chart example "Information systems types" is included in the Pyramid Diagrams solution from the Marketing area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

"A Computer(-Based) Information System is essentially an IS using computer technology to carry out some or all of its planned tasks. The basic components of computer based information system are:

(1) Hardware - these are the devices like the monitor, processor, printer and keyboard, all of which work together to accept, process, show data and information.

(2) Software - are the programs that allow the hardware to process the data.

(3) Databases - are the gathering of associated files or tables containing related data.

(4) Networks - are a connecting system that allows diverse computers to distribute resources.

(5) Procedures - are the commands for combining the components above to process information and produce the preferred output.

The first four components (hardware, software, database and network) make up what is known as the information technology platform. Information technology workers could then use these components to create information systems that watch over safety measures, risk and the management of data. These actions are known as information technology services." [Information systems. Wikipedia]

This pyramid diagram was redesigned using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software from Wikimedia Commons file Five-Level-Pyramid-model.png. [commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Five-Level-Pyramid-model.png]

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. [creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by/ 3.0/ deed.en]

The triangle chart example "Information systems types" is included in the Pyramid Diagrams solution from the Marketing area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

"In elementary algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadratus for "square") is any equation having the form

ax^2+bx+c=0

where x represents an unknown, and a, b, and c are constants with a not equal to 0. If a = 0, then the equation is linear, not quadratic. The constants a, b, and c are called, respectively, the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant or free term.

Because the quadratic equation involves only one unknown, it is called "univariate". The quadratic equation only contains powers of x that are non-negative integers, and therefore it is a polynomial equation, and in particular it is a second degree polynomial equation since the greatest power is two.

Quadratic equations can be solved by a process known in American English as factoring and in other varieties of English as factorising, by completing the square, by using the quadratic formula, or by graphing." [Quadratic equation. Wikipedia]

The flowchart example "Solving quadratic equation algorithm" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mathematics solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

ax^2+bx+c=0

where x represents an unknown, and a, b, and c are constants with a not equal to 0. If a = 0, then the equation is linear, not quadratic. The constants a, b, and c are called, respectively, the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant or free term.

Because the quadratic equation involves only one unknown, it is called "univariate". The quadratic equation only contains powers of x that are non-negative integers, and therefore it is a polynomial equation, and in particular it is a second degree polynomial equation since the greatest power is two.

Quadratic equations can be solved by a process known in American English as factoring and in other varieties of English as factorising, by completing the square, by using the quadratic formula, or by graphing." [Quadratic equation. Wikipedia]

The flowchart example "Solving quadratic equation algorithm" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mathematics solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

The vector stencils library "Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)" contains 26 symbols of metabolites for drawing metabolic pathway maps and biochemical shematic diagrams of the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, Krebs cycle) and diagrams of metabolism processes.

"The citric acid cycle - also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), or the Krebs cycle, - is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids as well as the reducing agent NADH that is used in numerous other biochemical reactions. Its central importance to many biochemical pathways suggests that it was one of the earliest established components of cellular metabolism and may have originated abiogenically.

The name of this metabolic pathway is derived from citric acid (a type of tricarboxylic acid) that is consumed and then regenerated by this sequence of reactions to complete the cycle. In addition, the cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA) and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, and produces carbon dioxide as a waste byproduct. The NADH generated by the TCA cycle is fed into the oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport) pathway. The net result of these two closely linked pathways is the oxidation of nutrients to produce usable chemical energy in the form of ATP." [Citric acid cycle. Wikipedia]

The shapes example "Design elements - TCA cycle" is included in the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

"The citric acid cycle - also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), or the Krebs cycle, - is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids as well as the reducing agent NADH that is used in numerous other biochemical reactions. Its central importance to many biochemical pathways suggests that it was one of the earliest established components of cellular metabolism and may have originated abiogenically.

The name of this metabolic pathway is derived from citric acid (a type of tricarboxylic acid) that is consumed and then regenerated by this sequence of reactions to complete the cycle. In addition, the cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA) and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, and produces carbon dioxide as a waste byproduct. The NADH generated by the TCA cycle is fed into the oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport) pathway. The net result of these two closely linked pathways is the oxidation of nutrients to produce usable chemical energy in the form of ATP." [Citric acid cycle. Wikipedia]

The shapes example "Design elements - TCA cycle" is included in the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

A four level pyramid model of different types of Information Systems based on the different levels of hierarchy in an organization. The first level represents transaction processing systems for workers. The second level represents management information systems for middle managers. The third level represents decision support systems for senior menegers. The fourth level represents executive information systems for executives.

"The "classic" view of Information systems found in the textbooks in the 1980s was of a pyramid of systems that reflected the hierarchy of the organization, usually transaction processing systems at the bottom of the pyramid, followed by management information systems, decision support systems, and ending with executive information systems at the top. Although the pyramid model remains useful, since it was first formulated a number of new technologies have been developed and new categories of information systems have emerged, some of which no longer fit easily into the original pyramid model.

Some examples of such systems are:

data warehouses,

enterprise resource planning,

enterprise systems,

expert systems,

search engines,

geographic information system,

global information system,

office automation." [Information systems. Wikipedia]

This diagram was redesigned using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software from Wikimedia Commons file Four-Level-Pyramid-model.png. [commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Four-Level-Pyramid-model.png]

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. [creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ deed.en]

The triangle chart example "Information systems types" is included in the Pyramid Diagrams solution from the Marketing area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

"The "classic" view of Information systems found in the textbooks in the 1980s was of a pyramid of systems that reflected the hierarchy of the organization, usually transaction processing systems at the bottom of the pyramid, followed by management information systems, decision support systems, and ending with executive information systems at the top. Although the pyramid model remains useful, since it was first formulated a number of new technologies have been developed and new categories of information systems have emerged, some of which no longer fit easily into the original pyramid model.

Some examples of such systems are:

data warehouses,

enterprise resource planning,

enterprise systems,

expert systems,

search engines,

geographic information system,

global information system,

office automation." [Information systems. Wikipedia]

This diagram was redesigned using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software from Wikimedia Commons file Four-Level-Pyramid-model.png. [commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Four-Level-Pyramid-model.png]

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. [creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ deed.en]

The triangle chart example "Information systems types" is included in the Pyramid Diagrams solution from the Marketing area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.

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