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Crude oil distillation unit - PFD

This process flow diagram (PFD) of a typical crude oil distillation unit as used in petroleum crude oil refineries was redrawn from Wikipedia file: Crude Oil Distillation Unit.png. [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Crude_Oil_Distillation_Unit.png]
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. [creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en]
"An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology of, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil depot (tank farm) at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products.
An oil refinery is considered an essential part of the midstream side of the petroleum industry." [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_refinery]
The process flow diagram (PFD) example "Crude oil distillation" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Chemical and Process Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Process flow diagram (PFD)
Process flow diagram (PFD), vapor, horizontal, jacketed vessel, vaporizing equipment, heater, cooler, heat exchanger, intersecting flowlines, fired heater, column, centrifugal pump, air-blown, cooler,
This PFD of jet fuel mercaptan oxidation treating was redrawn from Wikipedia file: ConvLPGMerox.png. [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ConvKeroMerox.png]
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported icense. [creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en]
"Merox is an acronym for mercaptan oxidation. It is a proprietary catalytic chemical process developed by UOP used in oil refineries and natural gas processing plants to remove mercaptans from LPG, propane, butanes, light naphthas, kerosene and jet fuel by converting them to liquid hydrocarbon disulfides.
The Merox process requires an alkaline environment which, in some of the process versions, is provided by an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), a strong base, commonly referred to as caustic. In other versions of the process, the alkalinity is provided by ammonia, which is a weak base.
The catalyst in some versions of the process is a water-soluble liquid. In other versions, the catalyst is impregnated onto charcoal granules.
Processes within oil refineries or natural gas processing plants that remove mercaptans and/or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are commonly referred to as sweetening processes because they results in products which no longer have the sour, foul odors of mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide. The liquid hydrocarbon disulfides may remain in the sweetened products, they may be used as part of the refinery or natural gas processing plant fuel, or they may be processed further.
The Merox process is usually more economical than using a catalytic hydrodesulfurization process for much the same purpose." [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merox]
The process flow diagram (PFD) example "Jet fuel mercaptan oxidation treating" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Chemical and Process Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Process flow diagram (PFD)
Process flow diagram (PFD), gate valve, electrically insulated, column, centrifugal pump,
This PFD sample was redesigned from the Wikipedia file: NaturalGasCondensate.png.
"This is a schematic flow diagram of a typical facility for separating and recovering liquid condensate from raw natural gas."
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NaturalGasCondensate.png]
"Natural-gas condensate is a low-density mixture of hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural gas fields. It condenses out of the raw gas if the temperature is reduced to below the hydrocarbon dew point temperature of the raw gas.
The natural gas condensate is also referred to as simply condensate, or gas condensate, or sometimes natural gasoline because it contains hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range. Raw natural gas may come from any one of three types of gas wells:
(1) Crude oil wells - Raw natural gas that comes from crude oil wells is called associated gas. This gas can exist separate from the crude oil in the underground formation, or dissolved in the crude oil.
(2) Dry gas wells - These wells typically produce only raw natural gas that does not contain any hydrocarbon liquids. Such gas is called non-associated gas.
(3) Condensate wells - These wells produce raw natural gas along with natural gas liquid. Such gas is also non-associated gas and often referred to as wet gas." [Natural-gas condensate. Wikipedia]
The process flow diagram example "Natural gas condensate - PFD" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Chemical and Process Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Process flow diagram (PFD)
Process flow diagram (PFD), vapor, horizontal, jacketed vessel, vaporizing equipment, reducer, off-sheet, pipelines, heater, cooler, diaphragm valve,
This is a schematic process flow diagram of the processes used in a typical oil refinery.
This process flow diagram (PFD) example was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: RefineryFlow.png. [commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RefineryFlow.png]
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. [creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en]
"An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology of, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil depot (tank farm) at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products.
An oil refinery is considered an essential part of the downstream side of the petroleum industry." [Oil refinery. Wikipedia]
The PFD example "Process flow diagram - Typical oil refinery" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Chemical and Process Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Process Flow Diagram (PFD), column,
This example was redesigned from the Wikipedia file: LastResortHotel BookRoom Process.png. [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LastResortHotel_BookRoom_Process.png]
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. [creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/]
"Event partitioning is an easy-to-apply systems analysis technique that helps the analyst organize requirements for large systems into a collection of smaller, simpler, minimally-connected, easier-to-understand ‘mini systems’ / use cases. ...
Defining requirements.
Single process in a fictitious hotel using data flow diagram notation.
Single use case in a fictitious hotel using use case diagram notation.
This approach helps the analyst to decompose the system into ‘mentally bite-sized’ mini-systems using events that require a planned response. The level of detail of each response is at the level of ‘primary use cases’. Each planned response may be modelled using DFD notation or as a single use case using use case diagram notation.
The basic flow within a process or use case can usually be described in a relatively small number of steps, often fewer than twenty or thirty, possibly using something like ‘structured English’. Ideally, all of the steps would be visible all at once (often a page or less). The intention is to reduce one of the risks associated with short-term memory, namely, forgetting what is not immediately visible (‘out of sight, out of mind’). ...
Single process in a fictitious hotel using data flow diagram notation." [Event partitioning. Wikipedia]
The DFD example "Last resort hotel book room process" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Data Flow Diagrams solution from the Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
DFD
DFD, process, external interactor, data store,

Cross-Functional Flowchart

Use of Cross-Functional Flowchart is a clear way of showing each team member’s responsibilities and how processes get shared or transferred between different responsible people, teams and departments. Use the best flowchart maker ConceptDraw PRO with a range of standardized cross-functional flowchart symbols to create the Cross-Functional Flowcharts simply and to visualize the relationship between a business process and the functional units responsible for that process. To draw the most quickly Cross-Functional Flowcharts, Cross Functional Process Maps, or Cross Functional Process Flow Diagrams, start with a Cross-functional flowchart samples and templates from ConceptDraw Solution Park. The ConceptDraw Arrows10 and RapidDraw technologies will be also useful for you in drawing. ConceptDraw PRO supports designing both types - horizontal and vertical Cross-functional flowcharts. A vertical layout makes the accents mainly on the functional units while a horizontal layout - on the process. If you need a Visio alternative in Mac OS X, try ConceptDraw PRO. Its interface is very intuitive and it’s actually much easier to use than Visio, yet somehow it’s just as powerful if not more so. ConceptDraw PRO performs professional quality work and seamless Visio interaction. Read more
How to Draw a Cross Functional Flowchart using visio alternative ConceptDraw PRO as visio for mac
How to Draw a Cross Functional Flowchart using visio alternative ConceptDraw PRO as visio for mac
This medical process flow chart sample illustrates an emergency medical responder (EMR).
It was drawn on the base of Wikimedia Commons file: EMR process flow.jpg. [commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EMR_process_flow.jpg]
"In general, Emergency Medical Responders are people such as police officer, firefighter or EMT that are trained to provide immediate pre hospital medical treatment to either a medical or trauma victim of accidents or disasters. EMR are not supposed to replace an EMT or Paramedic, EMR’s are only to provide enough care until the ambulance arrives." [Emergency medical responder (EMR). Wikiversity]
The flowchart example "Emergency medical responder process flow" was designed using ConceptDraw PRO software extended with Healthcare Workflow Diagrams solution from Business Processes area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Medical flowchart
Medical flowchart, wheeled stretcher, therapy, therapist, straight connector, direct connector, stadium, report, rectangle, patient card, operating theater, nurse hat, nurse, hospital ward, healthcare, health, first aid kit, emergency, elbow connector, smart connector, drawing shapes, document, dispensary, diamond, concussion, ambulance pickup truck, ambulance car, ambulance, Patient in bed,
This presales process flowchart example depicts the Microsoft Dynamics CRM workflow from lead to opportunity. It was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: Lead to Opportunity sales flow.svg. [commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lead_to_Opportunity_sales_flow.svg]
"Presales is a process or a set of activities normally carried out before a customer is acquired, though sometimes presales also extends into the period the product or service is delivered to the customer. ...
In a typical sales cycle the stages are:
(1) Contact.
(2) Lead / Suspect.
(3) Prospect / Opportunity.
The task of a presales person starts from the initial contact phase and often ends once the customer is acquired i.e. sale is made." [Presales. Wikipedia]
The process flowchart example "Lead to opportunity sales flow" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Sales Flowcharts solution from the Marketing area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Presales process flowchart
Presales process flowchart, u shaped arrow, stop, sales, proforma invoice, opportunities, moving up arrow, leads, lead, fat arrow, contacts, arrow fork, accounting software,
This BPMN diagram sample was designed on the base of the Wikimedia Commons file: BPMN-AProcesswithNormalFlow.svg. [commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BPMN-AProcesswithNormalFlow.svg]
"Business process modelling (BPM) is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current ("as is") process may be analyzed and improved in future ("to be"). Business process modelling is typically performed by business analysts and managers who are seeking to improve process efficiency and quality. The process improvements identified by business process modelling may or may not require Information Technology involvement, although that is a common driver for the need to model a business process, by creating a process master.
Change management programs are typically involved to put the improved business processes into practice. With advances in technology from large platform vendors, the vision of business process modelling models becoming fully executable (and capable of simulations and round-trip engineering) is coming closer to reality every day." [Enterprise modelling. Wikipedia]
The business process diagram example "A process with normal flow" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Business Process Model and Notation solution from the Business Processes area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
BPMN diagram
BPMN diagram, timer, task, smart sequence flow, smart association, none, end, message, exclusive gateway, data,

Hybrid Network Topology

A network topology is the topological structure or the arrangement of different elements of computer network. There are several basic types of network topologies, such as star, ring, bus, mesh. But the most popular is a combination of two or more diverse basic network topologies, which is known as hybrid network topology. The examples of hybrid topology are: star-bus, star-ring topologies, etc. Each resulting hybrid topology has its own features, advantages and limitations of its components. Hybrid network topologies are more flexible, reliable, and have increased fault tolerance, the faults in them can be easily diagnosed and corrected, new nodes can be easily added. But at the same time hybrid topologies often are sufficiently expensive and difficult for managing. ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software supplied with the tools of Computer Network Diagrams solution from Computer and Networks area is perfect for schematic description various types of computer network topologies and easy designing Hybrid network topology diagrams. Read more