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# Mechanical Engineering

This solution extends ConceptDraw PRO v.9 mechanical drawing software (or later) with samples of mechanical drawing symbols, templates and libraries of design elements, for help when drafting mechanical engineering drawings, or parts, assembly, pneumatic,

## Mechanical Engineering

The vector stencils library "Dimensioning and tolerancing" contains 45 symbols of geometric dimensions and mechanical tolerances, geometric symbols, callouts, and text boxes and inserts.
Use these geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) shapes to create annotated mechanical drawings.
"Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a system for defining and communicating engineering tolerances. It uses a symbolic language on engineering drawings and computer-generated three-dimensional solid models that explicitly describes nominal geometry and its allowable variation. It tells the manufacturing staff and machines what degree of accuracy and precision is needed on each controlled feature of the part. GD&T is used to define the nominal (theoretically perfect) geometry of parts and assemblies, to define the allowable variation in form and possible size of individual features, and to define the allowable variation between features." [Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Dimensioning and tolerancing" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Dimensioning and tolerancing symbols
Used Solutions

## Mechanical Engineering

This engineering drawing present weld type symbols and fillet weld symbols.
The weld type symbol is typically placed above or below the center of the reference line, depending on which side of the joint it's on. The symbol is interpreted as a simplified cross-section of the weld.
"Fillet welding refers to the process of joining two pieces of metal together whether they be perpendicular or at an angle. These welds are commonly referred to as Tee joints which are two pieces of metal perpendicular to each other or Lap joints which are two pieces of metal that overlap and are welded at the edges. The weld is aesthetically triangular in shape and may have a concave, flat or convex surface depending on the welder’s technique. Welders use fillet welds when connecting flanges to pipes, welding cross sections of infrastructure, and when fastening metal by bolts isn't strong enough." [Fillet weld. Wikipedia]
The engineering drawing example Welding symbols is included in the Mechanical Engineering solution from Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Welding joint symbols
Used Solutions

## Mechanical Engineering

The vector stencils library "Valve assembly" contains 141 symbols of pressure and flow regulators, flow direction indicators, controls, and symbols to design flow paths of control valves.
Use these valve assembly shapes to design the engineering drawings of hydraulic and pneumatic valve assemblies in fluid power systems.
"Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow, pressure, temperature, and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compare a "setpoint" to a "process variable" whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions.
The opening or closing of control valves is usually done automatically by electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators. Positioners are used to control the opening or closing of the actuator based on electric, or pneumatic signals.
A control valve consists of three main parts in which each part exist in several types and designs: Valve's actuator, Valve's positioner, Valve's body.
" [Control valves. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Valve assembly symbols
Used Solutions

## Mechanical Engineering

"The symbols and conventions used in welding documentation are specified in national and international standards such as ISO 2553 Welded, brazed and soldered joints -- Symbolic representation on drawings and ISO 4063 Welding and allied processes -- Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers. The US standard symbols are outlined by the American National Standards Institute and the American Welding Society and are noted as "ANSI/ AWS".
In engineering drawings, each weld is conventionally identified by an arrow which points to the joint to be welded. The arrow is annotated with letters, numbers and symbols which indicate the exact specification of the weld. In complex applications, such as those involving alloys other than mild steel, more information may be called for than can comfortably be indicated using the symbols alone. Annotations are used in these cases." [Symbols and conventions used in welding documentation. Wikipedia]
The example chart "Elements of welding symbol" is redesigned using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software from the Wikipedia file: Elements of a welding symbol.PNG.
[en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ File:Elements_ of_ a_ welding_ symbol.PNG]
The diagram example "Elements location of a welding symbol" is contained in the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Welding joint symbol chart
Used Solutions

## Mechanical Engineering

The vector stencils library "Bearings" contains 59 symbols of ball bearings, roller bearings, shafts, springs, gears, hooks, spindles, and keys.
Use it to design engineering drawings of machine tools and mechanical devices.
"A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion and reduce friction between moving parts to only the desired motion. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts. Many bearings also facilitate the desired motion as much as possible, such as by minimizing friction. Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts." [Bearing (mechanical). Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Bearings" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Bearing symbols
Used Solutions
HelpDesk

## How to Create a Mechanical Diagram

Mechanical Engineering drawing is a type of technical drawing that helps analyze complex engineering systems. Mechanical Engineering diagrams are often a set of detailed drawings used for engineering or construction projects.
Making Mechanical Engineering diagram involves many different elements that can be managed using ConceptDraw PRO. You can design elements for drawing parts, assembly, pneumatic, and hydraulic systems for mechanical engineering. With ConceptDraw PRO you can easily create and communicate the Mechanical Engineering diagram of any complexity.

## Mechanical Engineering

The vector stencils library "Pneumatic pumps and motors" contains 39 symbols of pneumatic pumps, motors and pump-motors for designing the engineering drawings of pneumatic circuits.
"A pneumatic motor or compressed air engine is a type of motor which does mechanical work by expanding compressed air. Pneumatic motors generally convert the compressed air energy to mechanical work through either linear or rotary motion. Linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator, while rotary motion is supplied by either a vane type air motor or piston air motor." [Pneumatic motor. Wikipedia]
"A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. An air compressor is a specific type of gas compressor.
Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible; while some can be compressed, the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids." [Gas compressor. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Pneumatic pumps and motors" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Pneumatic pump and motor symbols
Used Solutions
HelpDesk

## How to Create an Electrical Diagram Using ConceptDraw PRO

There are many of different electric circuit symbols that can be used in a circuit diagram. Knowing how to read circuit diagrams is a useful skill not only for professionals, but for any person who can start creating his own small home electronic projects. The circuit diagram shows the scheme of a location of components and connections of the electrical circuit using a set of standard symbols. It can be use for graphical documentation of an electrical circuit components.
The ability to  create electrical diagrams and schematic using ConceptDraw PRO is delivered by the Electrical Engineering solution. The solution supplied with samples, templates and libraries of design elements for drawing electrical schematics, digital and analog logic, circuit and wiring schematics and diagrams, power systems diagrams, maintenance and repair diagrams for electronics and electrical engineering.

## Mechanical Engineering

The vector stencils library "Hydraulic pumps and motors" contains 74 symbols of hydraulic pump vector stencils, hydraulic motor symbols for engineering drawings of fluid power and hydraulic control systems.
"Hydraulic pumps are used in hydraulic drive systems and can be hydrostatic or hydrodynamic.
Hydrostatic pumps are positive displacement pumps while hydrodynamic pumps can be fixed displacement pumps, in which the displacement (flow through the pump per rotation of the pump) cannot be adjusted, or variable displacement pumps, which have a more complicated construction that allows the displacement to be adjusted." [Hydraulic pump. Wikipedia]
"A hydraulic motor is a mechanical actuator that converts hydraulic pressure and flow into torque and angular displacement (rotation). The hydraulic motor is the rotary counterpart of the hydraulic cylinder.
Conceptually, a hydraulic motor should be interchangeable with a hydraulic pump because it performs the opposite function - much as the conceptual DC electric motor is interchangeable with a DC electrical generator. However, most hydraulic pumps cannot be used as hydraulic motors because they cannot be backdriven. Also, a hydraulic motor is usually designed for the working pressure at both sides of the motor.
Hydraulic pumps, motors, and cylinders can be combined into hydraulic drive systems. One or more hydraulic pumps, coupled to one or more hydraulic motors, constitutes a hydraulic transmission." [Hydraulic motor. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Hydraulic pumps and motors" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Hydraulic pump and motor symbols
Used Solutions

## Mechanical Engineering

The vector stencils library "Dimensioning and tolerancing" contains 45 symbols of geometric dimensions and mechanical tolerances, geometric symbols, callouts, and text boxes and inserts.
Use these geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) shapes to create annotated mechanical drawings in the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
www.conceptdraw.com/ solution-park/ engineering-mechanical
Datum (old)
Box callout
Datum symbol
Callout
All around callout
Text block
2 datum frame
Simple frame
Basic frame
1 datum frame
3 datum frame
Straightness
Flatness
Line profile
Circularity
Cylindricity
Surface profile
Position
Concentricity
Symmetry
Parallelism
Perpendicularity
Angularity
Material condition
Arc length
Diameter
Counterbore/ spotface
Countersink
Depth
Slope
Conical taper
Statistical tolerance
Datum (new)
Datum (new) 2
Target point
Target line
Target area (circle)
Target area (rectangle)
Total runout
Total runout 2
Circular runout
Circular runout 2
Surface finish
Surface finish, removal process
Surface finish, no process permitted
Used Solutions

## Mechanical Engineering

The vector stencils library "Welding" contains 38 welding joint symbols to identify fillets, contours, resistance seams, grooves, surfacing, and backing.
Use it to indicate welding operations on working drawings.
"Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower-melting-point material between the workpieces to form a bond between them, without melting the workpieces.
Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound.
Welds can be geometrically prepared in many different ways. The five basic types of weld joints are the butt joint, lap joint, corner joint, edge joint, and T-joint (a variant of this last is the cruciform joint). Other variations exist as well - for example, double-V preparation joints are characterized by the two pieces of material each tapering to a single center point at one-half their height. Single-U and double-U preparation joints are also fairly common - instead of having straight edges like the single-V and double-V preparation joints, they are curved, forming the shape of a U. Lap joints are also commonly more than two pieces thick - depending on the process used and the thickness of the material, many pieces can be welded together in a lap joint geometry." [Welding. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Welding" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Welding joint symbols
Used Solutions

## Mechanical Engineering

The vector stencils library "Heating equipment" contains 42 symbols of regenerators, intercoolers, heaters, and condensers.
Use these shapes for drawing cooling systems, heat recovery systems, thermal, heat transfer and mechanical design, and process flow diagrams (PFD).
"Heating or cooling of processes, equipment, or enclosed environments are within the purview of thermal engineering.
One or more of the following disciplines may be involved in solving a particular thermal engineering problem:
Thermodynamics,
Fluid mechanics,
Heat transfer,
Mass transfer.
Thermal engineering may be practiced by mechanical engineers and chemical engineers.
One branch of knowledge used frequently in thermal engineering is that of thermofluids." [Thermal engineering. Wikipedia]
The design elements example "Heating equipment" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Heating equipment symbols
Used Solutions

## Mechanical Engineering

The vector stencils library "Fluid power equipment" contains 113 symbols of hydraulic and pneumatic equipment including pumps, motors, air compressors, cylinders, meters, gauges, and actuators. Use it to design fluid power and hydraulic control systems.
"Fluid power is the use of fluids under pressure to generate, control, and transmit power. Fluid power is subdivided into hydraulics using a liquid such as mineral oil or water, and pneumatics using a gas such as air or other gases. Compressed-air and water-pressure systems were once used to transmit power from a central source to industrial users over extended geographic areas; fluid power systems today are usually within a single building or mobile machine." [Fluid power. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - Fluid power equipment" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Fluid power symbols
Used Solutions