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# Hydraulic circuits

"A hydraulic circuit is a system comprising an interconnected set of discrete components that transport liquid. The purpose of this system may be to control where fluid flows (as in a network of tubes of coolant in a thermodynamic system) or to control fluid pressure (as in hydraulic amplifiers).
... hydraulic circuit theory works best when the elements (passive component such as pipes or transmission lines or active components such as power packs or pumps) are discrete and linear. This usually means that hydraulic circuit analysis works best for long, thin tubes with discrete pumps, as found in chemical process flow systems or microscale devices." [Hydraulic circuit. Wikipedia]
The engineering drawing example "Hydraulic circuits" was redrawn using ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software from the Wikimedia Commons file: Hydraulic circuits.png.
[commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Hydraulic_ circuits.png]
The engineering drawing example "Hydraulic circuits" is included in the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Hydraulic circuit schematic
Used Solutions

## Hydraulic circuits

The circuit diagram example "Bipolar current mirror" was redesigned from the Wikipedia file: Current mirror.png.
[en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ File:Current_ mirror.png]
"A current mirror is a circuit designed to copy a current through one active device by controlling the current in another active device of a circuit, keeping the output current constant regardless of loading. The current being 'copied' can be, and sometimes is, a varying signal current. Conceptually, an ideal current mirror is simply an ideal inverting current amplifier that reverses the current direction as well or it is a current-controlled current source (CCCS). The current mirror is used to provide bias currents and active loads to circuits. ...
Basic BJT current mirror.
If a voltage is applied to the BJT base-emitter junction as an input quantity and the collector current is taken as an output quantity, the transistor will act as an exponential voltage-to-current converter. By applying a negative feedback (simply joining the base and collector) the transistor can be "reversed" and it will begin acting as the opposite logarithmic current-to-voltage converter; now it will adjust the "output" base-emitter voltage so as to pass the applied "input" collector current.
The simplest bipolar current mirror ... implements this idea. It consists of two cascaded transistor stages acting accordingly as a reversed and direct voltage-to-current converters." [Current mirror. Wikipedia]
The circuit diagram example "Bipolar current mirror" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Circuit diagram
Used Solutions

## Hydraulic circuits

The circuit diagram example "Amplifier" was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: Slika br.5.JPG.
[commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Slika_ br.5.JPG]
This file is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. [creativecommons.org/ publicdomain/ zero/ 1.0/ deed.en]
"An electronic amplifier, amplifier, or (informally) amp is an electronic device that increases the power of a signal. It does this by taking energy from a power supply and controlling the output to match the input signal shape but with a larger amplitude. In this sense, an amplifier modulates the output of the power supply.
There are four basic types of electronic amplifier: the voltage amplifier, the current amplifier, the transconductance amplifier, and the transresistance amplifier. A further distinction is whether the output is a linear or nonlinear representation of the input. Amplifiers can also be categorized by their physical placement in the signal chain." [Amplifier. Wikipedia]
The circuit diagram example "Amplifier" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Circuit diagram
Used Solutions

## Hydraulic circuits

The logic gate diagram example "2-bit ALU" was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: 2-bit ALU.svg.
[commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:2-bit_ ALU.svg]
"In digital electronics, an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs integer arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers. The processors found inside modern CPUs and graphics processing units (GPUs) accommodate very powerful and very complex ALUs; a single component may contain a number of ALUs. ...
Most of a processor's operations are performed by one or more ALUs. An ALU loads data from input registers. Then an external control unit tells the ALU what operation to perform on that data, and then the ALU stores its result into an output register. The control unit is responsible for moving the processed data between these registers, ALU and memory." [Arithmetic logic unit. Wikipedia]
The logic gate diagram example "2-bit ALU" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Logic gate diagram
Used Solutions

## Pyramid Diagram

At the base of the identity of an organisational is its organizational culture.

## Hydraulic circuits

A simple hydraulic schematic showing apparatus for testing the strength of a hydraulic hose splice.
Water enters through normally closed solenoid valve (1) and passes through intake flow meter (2) to high pressure pump (4). Intake water pressure is monitored by pressure gauge (3). The hose to be tested connects between pump (4) and normally open solenoid activated drain valve (7). To test the hose, pump drive motor (5) is turned on, the solenoid of drain valve (7) is activated, closing the valve, and the pump is run to pressurize the hose. Test pressure is monitored by gauge (6). When the test is complete or the hose fails, the solenoid of drain valve (7) is deactivated, opening valve and discharging water, depressurizing the system. All components are operated electrically by a remote control circuit so that the operator may perform the test from a protected location, monitoring it with a camera and video monitor.
This hydraulic schematic example was redrawn using ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software from the Wikimedia Commons file: Hydraulic schematic.jpg.
[commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Hydraulic_ schematic.jpg]
The hydraulic schematic example "Apparatus for testing the strength of a hydraulic hose splice" is included in the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Hydraulic system schematic
Used Solutions

## Hydraulic circuits

This PFD of jet fuel mercaptan oxidation treating was redrawn from Wikipedia file: ConvLPGMerox.png. [en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ File:ConvKeroMerox.png]
"Merox is an acronym for mercaptan oxidation. It is a proprietary catalytic chemical process developed by UOP used in oil refineries and natural gas processing plants to remove mercaptans from LPG, propane, butanes, light naphthas, kerosene and jet fuel by converting them to liquid hydrocarbon disulfides.
The Merox process requires an alkaline environment which, in some of the process versions, is provided by an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), a strong base, commonly referred to as caustic. In other versions of the process, the alkalinity is provided by ammonia, which is a weak base.
The catalyst in some versions of the process is a water-soluble liquid. In other versions, the catalyst is impregnated onto charcoal granules.
Processes within oil refineries or natural gas processing plants that remove mercaptans and/ or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are commonly referred to as sweetening processes because they results in products which no longer have the sour, foul odors of mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide. The liquid hydrocarbon disulfides may remain in the sweetened products, they may be used as part of the refinery or natural gas processing plant fuel, or they may be processed further.
The Merox process is usually more economical than using a catalytic hydrodesulfurization process for much the same purpose." [en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Merox]
The process flow diagram (PFD) example "Jet fuel mercaptan oxidation treating" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Chemical and Process Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Process flow diagram (PFD)
Used Solutions

## Hydraulic circuits

"Feedback is a process in which information about the past or the present influences the same phenomenon in the present or future. As part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop, the event is said to "feed back" into itself. ...
Feedback loop - the complete causal path that leads from the initial detection of the gap to the subsequent modification of the gap. ...
Feedback is commonly divided into two types - usually termed positive and negative. The terms can be applied in two contexts:
(1) the altering of the gap between reference and actual values of a parameter, based on whether the gap is widening (positive) or narrowing (negative),
(2) the valence of the action or effect that alters the gap, based on whether it has a happy (positive) or unhappy (negative) emotional connotation to the recipient or observer." [Feedback. Wikipedia]
This cycle diagram example was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: Business Feedback Loop.jpg. [commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Business_ Feedback_ Loop.jpg]
This file is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. [creativecommons.org/ publicdomain/ zero/ 1.0/ deed.en]
The ring chart example "Business feedback loop" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Target and Circular Diagrams solution from the Marketing area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
www.conceptdraw.com/ solution-park/ marketing-target-and-circular-diagrams
Ring chart
Used Solutions

## Hydraulic circuits

"Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. At a very basic level hydraulics is the liquid version of pneumatics. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through some part of science and most of engineering modules, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and fluid control circuitry, pumps, turbines, hydropower, computational fluid dynamics, flow measurement, river channel behavior and erosion." [Hydraulics. Wikipedia]
This hydraulic schematic example was redrawn using ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software from the Wikimedia Commons file: Skjematikk.GIF.
[commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Skjematikk.GIF]
The engineering drawing example "Hydraulic schematic" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Mechanical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Hydraulic schematic example
Used Solutions

## Hydraulic circuits

"Directional control valves are one of the most fundamental parts in hydraulic machinery as well and pneumatic machinery. They allow fluid flow into different paths from one or more sources. They usually consist of a spool inside a cylinder which is mechanically or electrically controlled. The movement of the spool restricts or permits the flow, thus it controls the fluid flow." [Directional control valve. Wikipedia]
This example engineering drawing showing the directional control valve usage with fixed volume pump and hydraulic cylinder is redesigned using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software from Wikimedia Commons file: DCV 19.jpg.
[commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:DCV_ 19.jpg]