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Amine treating unit schematic diagram

This process flow diagram (PFD) example shows an amine treating system for the removal of gaseous hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. It is used in oil refineries and chemical plants. This PFD sample was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: AmineTreating.png. []
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. []
"Amine gas treating, also known as gas sweetening and acid gas removal, refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various alkylamines (commonly referred to simply as amines) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases. It is a common unit process used in refineries, and is also used in petrochemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industries.
Processes within oil refineries or chemical processing plants that remove hydrogen sulfide are referred to as "sweetening" processes because the odor of the processed products is improved by the absence of hydrogen sulfide. An alternative to the use of amines involves membrane technology. Membranes are attractive since no reagents are consumed.
Many different amines are used in gas treating:
Diethanolamine (DEA),
Monoethanolamine (MEA),
Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA),
Diisopropanolamine (DIPA),
Aminoethoxyethanol (Diglycolamine) (DGA).
The most commonly used amines in industrial plants are the alkanolamines DEA, MEA, and MDEA. These amines are also used in many oil refineries to remove sour gases from liquid hydrocarbons such as liquified petroleum gas (LPG)." [Amine gas treating. Wikipedia]
The PFD example "Amine treating unit schematic diagram" was drawn using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemical and Process Engineering solution from the Chemical and Process Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
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This cycle diagram sample was created on the base of the figure illustrating the article "Environmental Materials" by Cris Arnold from the website of the UK Centre for Materials Education of the Higher Education Academy. "The figure ... schematically shows how the disparate areas under the heading of 'environmental materials' can be linked via a life cycle analysis approach. ...
Life Cycle Analysis.
Life Cycle Analysis is essentially a method of considering the entire environmental impact, energy and resource usage of a material or product. It is often known as a 'cradle-to-grave' analysis and can encompass the entire lifetime from extraction to end-of-life disposal. Life cycle analysis can be an extremely effective way of linking many different aspects of the environmental impacts of materials usage. ...
Materials Extraction and Resource Implications.
The environmental impact of raw materials extraction and processing together with global resource issues provides a good place to start consideration of environmental aspects of materials. ...
Environmental Impacts of Processing.
... Topics that would come under this subject area include the specific environmental problems associated with processing of metals, polymers, ceramics, composites etc, and how these problems can be overcome.
Design for Sustainability.
This area ... will ... cover issues such as design for successful recycling, waste minimisation, energy efficiency and increased lifetime.
Economic, Social and Legislative Issues.
... For example, materials selection within the automotive industry is now heavily influenced by 'end-of-life vehicle' and 'hazardous material' regulations.
Use of Sustainable Materials.
... It is probably sensible to define such materials as those that have distinct differences that achieve environmental benefit compared to conventional materials. With this definition, the list would include:
(1) Materials of a significantly plant-based nature, including wood, natural fibre composites, natural polymers.
(2) Materials produced using a large proportion of waste material, including recycled polymers, composites made from waste mineral powders, and arguably also much steel and aluminium.
Materials for Green Energy.
The most exciting developments in Materials Science are in the realm of functional materials, and many of these serve an environmentally-beneficial purpose, particularly in the production of green energy.
These include:
(1) Solar-cell materials.
(2) Fuel-cell technology.
(3) Catalytic pollution control.
End-of-Life Issues.
The treatment of materials at the end of their lifetime is a significant subject area and encompasses aspects such as recycling techniques and materials limitations, biodegradabilty and composting, chemical recovery and energy recovery." []
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