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Design elements - Chemical drawings

The vector stencils library "Chemical drawings" contains 81 symbols of organic compounds and functional groups for chemical drawing.
Use it to draw structural formulas of organic molecules, schemes of chemical reactions and organic chemistry diagrams.
"Structural drawings.
Organic molecules are described more commonly by drawings or structural formulas, combinations of drawings and chemical symbols. The line-angle formula is simple and unambiguous. In this system, the endpoints and intersections of each line represent one carbon, and hydrogen atoms can either be notated explicitly or assumed to be present as implied by tetravalent carbon. The depiction of organic compounds with drawings is greatly simplified by the fact that carbon in almost all organic compounds has four bonds, nitrogen three, oxygen two, and hydrogen one. ...
Organic reactions.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. While pure hydrocarbons undergo certain limited classes of reactions, many more reactions which organic compounds undergo are largely determined by functional groups. The general theory of these reactions involves careful analysis of such properties as the electron affinity of key atoms, bond strengths and steric hindrance. These issues can determine the relative stability of short-lived reactive intermediates, which usually directly determine the path of the reaction.
The basic reaction types are: addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions and redox reactions. ...
Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that explains how it happens in sequence - although the detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone.
The stepwise course of any given reaction mechanism can be represented using arrow pushing techniques in which curved arrows are used to track the movement of electrons as starting materials transition through intermediates to final products." [Organic chemistry. Wikipedia]
The chemical symbols example "Design elements - Chemical drawings" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Chemical symbols
Chemical symbols, δ-, delta minus, electronegativity, δ+, delta plus, delta positive, Δ, delta, wedged bond, bond, wavy bond, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, plus, pentose ring, pentose, minus, methyl group, methyl, CH3, hydrogen, H, hollow wedged bond, bond, hashed wedged bond, bond, hashed bond, bond, dative bond, bond, dashed bond, cyclopropane, cyclopentane, cyclopentadienyl, cyclopentadiene, cyclooctane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, cyclobutane, carbon, bond, covalent bond, triple bond, bond, covalent bond, single bond, bond, covalent bond, double bond, bond, bold bond, benzene, Kekule structure, benzene ring, benzene, OH, NO2, NH2, COOH, COH, CO, CH2, CH,

chemical drawings, chemistry equation symbols, chemical drawing software Chemistry

This solution extends ConceptDraw PRO software with samples, template and libraries of vector stencils for drawing the Chemistry Illustrations for science and education. Read more
chemical drawings, chemistry equation symbols, chemical drawing software
This drawing illustrates examples o f phenolic compounds molecular structures, and chemical reactions of phenols.
"In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol, which is also called carbolic acid C6H5OH. Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. ...
Although similar to alcohols, phenols have unique properties and are not classified as alcohols (since the hydroxyl group is not bonded to a saturated carbon atom). They have higher acidities due to the aromatic ring's tight coupling with the oxygen and a relatively loose bond between the oxygen and hydrogen. The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids (their pKa is usually between 10 and 12).
Loss of a positive hydrogen ion (H+) from the hydroxyl group of a phenol forms a corresponding negative phenolate ion or phenoxide ion, and the corresponding salts are called phenolates or phenoxides, although the term aryloxides is preferred according to the IUPAC Gold Book. Phenols can have two or more hydroxy groups bonded to the aromatic ring(s) in the same molecule. The simplest examples are the three benzenediols, each having two hydroxy groups on a benzene ring." [Phenols. Wikipedia]
The chemical drawing example "Phenols" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Phenolic compounds and phenol reactions
Phenolic compounds and phenol reactions, δ-, delta minus, electronegativity, δ+, delta plus, delta positive, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, methyl group, methyl, CH3, hydrogen, H, benzene, Kekule structure, benzene ring, benzene, OH, NO2, COOH, COH, CH2,
"In biochemistry, metabolic pathways are series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. In each pathway, a principal chemical is modified by a series of chemical reactions. Enzymes catalyze these reactions, and often require dietary minerals, vitamins, and other cofactors in order to function properly. Because of the many chemicals (a.k.a. "metabolites") that may be involved, metabolic pathways can be quite elaborate. In addition, numerous distinct pathways co-exist within a cell. This collection of pathways is called the metabolic network. Pathways are important to the maintenance of homeostasis within an organism. Catabolic (break-down) and Anabolic (synthesis) pathways often work interdependently to create new biomolecules as the final end-products." [Metabolic pathway. Wikipedia]
The biochemical diagram example "Metabolic pathway map" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Catabolic pathways
Catabolic pathways, proteins, polysaccharides, oxidative phosphorylation, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NADH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD, monosaccharides, fatty acids, fats, energy generation, digestion, citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, TCA cycle, Krebs cycle, amino acids, adenosine triphosphate, ATP, adenosine diphosphate, ADP, acetyl coenzyme A,
This chemical reaction mechanism drawing depicts steps of carbonyl compound halogenation reaction.
"Alpha-substitution reactions occur at the position next to the carbonyl group, the α-position, and involve the substitution of an α hydrogen atom by an electrophile, E, through either an enol or enolate ion intermediate. ...
Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones.
A particularly common α-substitution reaction in the laboratory is the halogenation of aldehydes and ketones at their α positions by reaction Cl2, Br2 or I2 in acidic solution. Bromine in acetic acid solvent is often used. ...
The halogenation is a typical α-substitution reaction that proceeds by acid catalyzed formation of an enol intermediate." [Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions. Wikipedia]
This example was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: Halogenierung Mechanismus Version 3-Seite001.svg. [commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Halogenierung_Mechanismus_Version_3-Seite001.svg]
This image is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. [creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/]
The chemical drawing example "Carbonyl compound halogenation mechanism" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Alpha halogenation of aldehydes and ketones
Alpha halogenation of aldehydes and ketones, reaction arrows, reversible reaction, plus, minus, hydrogen, H, bond, covalent bond, double bond,
The vector stencils library "Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)" contains 26 symbols of metabolites for drawing metabolic pathway maps and biochemical shematic diagrams of the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, Krebs cycle) and diagrams of metabolism processes.
"The citric acid cycle - also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), or the Krebs cycle, - is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids as well as the reducing agent NADH that is used in numerous other biochemical reactions. Its central importance to many biochemical pathways suggests that it was one of the earliest established components of cellular metabolism and may have originated abiogenically.
The name of this metabolic pathway is derived from citric acid (a type of tricarboxylic acid) that is consumed and then regenerated by this sequence of reactions to complete the cycle. In addition, the cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA) and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, and produces carbon dioxide as a waste byproduct. The NADH generated by the TCA cycle is fed into the oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport) pathway. The net result of these two closely linked pathways is the oxidation of nutrients to produce usable chemical energy in the form of ATP." [Citric acid cycle. Wikipedia]
The shapes example "Design elements - TCA cycle" is included in the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Tricarboxylic acid cycle (Krebs cycle) symbols
Tricarboxylic acid  cycle (Krebs cycle) symbols , α-ketoglutarate, alpha-ketoglutarate, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, water, succinyl-CoA, succinyl-coenzyme A, SucCoA, succinate, succinic acid, butanedioic acid, spirit of amber, phosphate, phosphoric acid, orthophosphoric acid, dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen phosphate, oxaloacetate, oxaloacetic acid, oxalacetic acid, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NADH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD, guanosine-5'-triphosphate, GTP, guanosine triphosphate, guanosine-5'-diphosphate, GDP, guanosine diphosphate, fumarate, fumaric acid, trans-butenedioic acid, flavin adenine dinucleotide, FADH2, flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, CoQ10, CoQ, Q10, citric acid, citrate, citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, TCA cycle, Krebs cycle, carbon dioxide, acetyl coenzyme A, L-malate, malate, malic acid, L-malic acid, D-isocitrate, D-isocitric acid, isocitrate, isocitric acid, Coenzyme A,
The vector stencils library "Conformations" contains 32 symbols of ring conformations, Newman and Fisher projections for chemical and biochemical drawing the molecular models and structural formulas of organic molecules and biochemical metabolites. It is useful in stereochemistry for drawing spatial structures of conformers of organic molecules, and schemes of stereospecific chemical reactions in organic synthesis.
"In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted exclusively by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation). Such isomers are generally referred to as conformational isomers or conformers and, specifically, as rotamers. Rotations about single bonds are restricted by a rotational energy barrier which must be overcome to interconvert one conformer to another. Conformational isomerism arises when the rotation about a single bond is relatively unhindered. That is, the energy barrier must be small enough for the interconversion to occur.
Conformational isomers are thus distinct from the other classes of stereoisomers (i. e. configurational isomers) where interconversion necessarily involves breaking and reforming of chemical bonds. For example, L- & D and R- & S- configurations of organic molecules have different handedness and optical activities, and can only be interconverted by breaking one or more bonds connected to the chiral atom and reforming a similar bond in a different direction or spatial orientation.
The study of the energetics between different rotamers is referred to as conformational analysis. It is useful for understanding the stability of different isomers, for example, by taking into account the spatial orientation and through-space interactions of substituents. In addition, conformational analysis can be used to predict and explain product(s) selectivity, mechanisms, and rates of reactions." [Conformational isomerism. Wikipedia]
The chemical symbols example "Design elements - Conformations" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO software extended with the Chemistry solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Read more
Molecular conformations and projections
Molecular conformations and projections, pyranose cycle, pyranose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide, furanose cycle, furanose, Haworth formula, monosaccharide, cyclopropane, cyclopentane, envelope conformation, cyclooctane, equatorial form, cyclooctane, chair conformation, cyclooctane, boat conformation, cyclohexane, twist-chair conformation, cyclohexane, twist-boat conformation, cyclohexane, planar form, cyclohexane, equatorial form, cyclohexane, chair conformation, cyclohexane, boat conformation, cycloheptane, equatorial form, cycloheptane, chair conformation, cycloheptane, boat conformation, cyclobutane, saddle conformation, cyclobutane, conformation, Newman projection formula, Fischer projection formula, monosaccharide,